Download Step 6: Configure Oscillator The next step is to start programming; however, before we get to the application code we must program the system code. The system code are the low level functions such as configuring the oscillator and basic delay functions. Determining Settings Before we can program the settings, we must choose what speed we would like to run at. If you are using the internal oscillator then use the settings relating to INTIO1 On the next page or two you will find a schematic drawing of the oscillator similar to the one shown. It is helpful to trace the signal on this drawing to ensure the correct speed is being selected. The next step is to program these settings to the MCU.
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This microcontroller is very convenient to use, the coding or programming of this controller is also easier. One of the main advantages is that it can be write-erase as many times as possible because it uses FLASH memory technology. It has a total number of 40 pins and there are 33 pins for input and output. PIC16FA is used in many pic microcontroller projects. PIC16FA also have much application in digital electronics circuits.
PIC16fa finds its applications in a huge number of devices. It is used in remote sensors, security and safety devices, home automation and many industrial instruments. An EEPROM is also featured in it which makes it possible to store some of the information permanently like transmitter codes and receiver frequencies and some other related data.
The cost of this controller is low and its handling is also easy. It is flexible and can be used in areas where microcontrollers have never been used before as in microprocessor applications and timer functions etc. It has a smaller 35 instructions set.
It can operate up to 20MHz frequency. The operating voltage is between 4. If you provide it voltage more than 5. It consists of two 8 bit and one 16 bit timer. It resets the microcontroller and is active low, meaning that it should constantly be given a voltage of 5V and if 0 V are given then the controller is reset. Resetting the controller will bring it back to the first line of the program that has been burned into the IC.
A push button and a resistor is connected to the pin. The pin is already being supplied by constant 5V. When we want to reset the IC we just have to push the button which will bring the MCLR pin to 0 potential thereby resetting the controller. Pin 2 is the first pin of this port.
This pin can also be used as an analog pin AN0. It is built in analog to digital converter. Or negative analog reference voltage can be given to it. Or can act as the analog positive reference voltage. There is synchronous serial port in the controller also and this pin can be used as the slave select for that port. Both of them should be connected to 5V. They should be connected to 0 potential.
A crystal resonator is connected between pin 13 and 14 to provide external clock to the microcontroller. This indicates the instruction cycle rate.
It is also a bidirectional input output port. Of them, pin 15 is the first. It can be the clock input of timer 1 or the oscillator output of timer 2. When the microprocessor bus is to be interfaced, it can act as the parallel slave port. Note: All pins have multiple functionalities.
But, we can use one function of each port at a time or you have to program it smartly so that you can switch between different functionalities.
Like once you need one pin to read analog signal, define it for analog purpose and then switch to other functions like digital output etc. For beginners, we suggest to use one pin for single functionality and you can use multi-function mode, once you become an expert in programming. We will configure them according to our requirements. But in case of analog mode, the pins or the ports can only act as inputs. There is a built in A to D converter which is used in such cases. Multiplexer circuits are also used.
But in digital mode, there is no restriction. We can configure the ports as output or as input. This is done through programming. For PIC the preferable compiler is mikro C pro which can be downloaded from their website.
If we set a bit of the TRIS register to 0, the corresponding port bit will act as the digital output. If we set a bit of the TRIS register to 1, the corresponding port bit will act as the digital input. If we connect LEDs at all the pins then they will all start glowing in this condition. We generally recommend Mikro C for pic compiler for beginners and MPLAB XC8 compiler for those who want to learn pic microcontrollers programming from register level bare metal concepts.
You can go through our list pic microcontroller compilers article for further details. We can use 8 analog sensors with this microcontroller. Timers: It provides three timers timer0, timer1 and timer2. All these timers can be used either in timer mode or in counter mode. These timers are used to generate delays, pulse width modulation, counting external events and timer interrupts.
TIMER0 is a 8 bit timer and it can operate with internal or external clock frequency. When we use Timer0 in timer mode, we usually operate it with internal frequency and in counter mode, we trigger it with external clock source.
TIMER2 is also of 8-bit. It is usually used with electronics lock related projects. We can easily generate two PWM signals with this microcontroller. The maximum resolution it supports is 10 bits. UART pins are used for serial communication between digital devices. RC7 pin is a transmitter or RX pin which is pin number RC6 is a receiver or Tx pin which is pin number For additional details, check this complete guide on serial communication using pic16fa microcontroller.
I2C communication tutorial will help you understand further. Interrupts : Interrupts have wonderful applications in embedded systems field.
Comparator module : It has a comparator module which composed of two comparators. They are used for comparison of analog signal similar to comparators in electronics circuits.
Watchdog timer : WDT is a on chip separate oscillator which runs freely. WDT will also work even if the device is in sleep mode. It is used to wake up device from sleep mode and also used to generate watchdog timer reset. In this mode, device operates at very low power. All peripherals draws minimum amount of current.
Brown out detection : It also has a brown out detection circuit which detects the significant drop in power supply voltage.
If supply voltage drop from a certain limit, it will generate a interrupt signals. Device checks for voltage after every 72ms.
Some other momentous features are listed below : Power on Reset.
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Programming PIC Microcontrollers