Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission. By opening and using this Manual the user agrees to the following restrictions, and if the recipient does not agree to these restrictions, the Manual should be promptly returned unopened to McGraw-Hill: This Manual is being provided only to authorized professors and instructors for use in preparing for the classes using the affiliated textbook. No other use or distribution of this Manual is permitted. This Manual may not be sold and may not be distributed to or used by any student or other third party.
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Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission. By opening and using this Manual the user agrees to the following restrictions, and if the recipient does not agree to these restrictions, the Manual should be promptly returned unopened to McGraw-Hill: This Manual is being provided only to authorized professors and instructors for use in preparing for the classes using the affiliated textbook.
No other use or distribution of this Manual is permitted. This Manual may not be sold and may not be distributed to or used by any student or other third party. No part of this Manual may be reproduced, displayed or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the prior written permission of McGraw-Hill. Analysis A substance in the liquid or gas phase is referred to as a fluid.
A fluid differs from a solid in that a solid can resist an applied shear stress by deforming, whereas a fluid deforms continuously under the influence of shear stress, no matter how small. A liquid takes the shape of the container it is in, and a liquid forms a free surface in a larger container in a gravitational field.
A gas, on the other hand, expands until it encounters the walls of the container and fills the entire available space. Discussion The subject of fluid mechanics deals with ball fluids, both gases and liquids. Analysis The flow of air over the wings of an aircraft is external since this is an unbounded fluid flow over a surface.
The flow of gases through a jet engine is internal flow since the fluid is completely bounded by the solid surfaces of the engine. Discussion If we consider the entire airplane, the flow is both internal through the jet engines and external over the body and wings.
Analysis A fluid flow during which the density of the fluid remains nearly constant is called incompressible flow. A flow in which density varies significantly is called compressible flow. Discussion It turns out that the Mach number is the critical parameter to determine whether the flow of a gas can be approximated as an incompressible flow. If Ma is less than about 0. Analysis External flow is the flow of an unbounded fluid over a surface such as a plate, a wire, or a pipe.
The flow in a pipe or duct is internal flow if the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces. The flow of liquids in a pipe is called open-channel flow if the pipe is partially filled with the liquid and there is a free surface, such as the flow of water in rivers and irrigation ditches.
Discussion As we shall see in later chapters, different approximations are used in the analysis of fluid flows based on their classification. Analysis The Mach number of a flow is defined as the ratio of the speed of flow to the speed of sound in the flowing fluid. A Mach number of 2 indicate a flow speed that is twice the speed of sound in that fluid. Discussion Mach number is an example of a dimensionless or nondimensional parameter.
Analysis No. The speed of sound, and thus the Mach number, changes with temperature which may change considerably from point to point in the atmosphere. Therefore, air flow with a Mach number of 0.
Discussion Air is of course a compressible fluid, but at low Mach numbers, compressibility effects are insignificant. Analysis A fluid in direct contact with a solid surface sticks to the surface and there is no slip.
This is known as the no-slip condition, and it is due to the viscosity of the fluid. Discussion There is no such thing as an inviscid fluid, since all fluids have viscosity. We are also to discuss whether wind-driven flows are forced or natural. Analysis In forced flow, the fluid is forced to flow over a surface or in a tube by external means such as a pump or a fan.
In natural flow, any fluid motion is caused by natural means such as the buoyancy effect that manifests itself as the rise of the warmer fluid and the fall of the cooler fluid. The flow caused by winds is natural flow for the earth, but it is forced flow for bodies subjected to the winds since for the body it makes no difference whether the air motion is caused by a fan or by the winds.
Discussion As seen here, the classification of forced vs.
Mecánica de Fluidos Incompresibles y Turbomáquinas Hidráulicas – José Aguera Soriano
Resolução Mecânica dos Fluidos Çengel
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