So the meaning is Lord of the Universe. Who belongs to Jagannath Sanskruti? Why Lord Jagannath is not rich? Which means he is friend of the poor. Who can worship Jagannath? Any one.
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Etymology[ edit ] "Jagannath" is a compound word from Sanskrit , consisting of "Jagat" and "Nath". Thus, Jagannath means "lord of the universe".
Both names derive from "Jagannath". This hypothesis states that the Vedic people as they settled into tribal regions adopted the tribal words and called the deity Jagannath. Starza, this is unlikely because Kittung is phonetically unrelated, and the Kittung tribal deity is produced from burnt wood and looks very different from Jagannath. The icon lacks a neck, ears, and limbs, is identified by a large circular face symbolizing someone who is anadi without beginning and ananta without end. He is shown with an Urdhva Pundra , the Vaishnava U-shaped mark on his forehead.
His dark color and other facial features are an abstraction of the cosmic form of the Hindu god Krishna, states Starza. In some exceptional medieval and modern era paintings in museums outside India, such as in Berlin states Starza, Jagannath is shown "fully anthropomorphised" but with the traditional abstract mask face.
However, aniconic forms of Hindu deities are not uncommon. For example, Shiva is often represented in the form of a Shiva linga. In most Jagannath temples in the eastern states of India, and all his major temples such as the Puri, Odisha , Jagannath is included with his brother Balabhadra and sister Subhadra. Apart from the principal companion deities, Jagannath icon shows a Sudarshana Chakra and sometimes under the umbrella cover of multiheaded Sesha Naga, both linking him to Vishnu.
He was one of the introduction to Hinduism to early European explorers and merchants who sailed into Calcutta and ports of the Bay of Bengal. The Italian Odoric of Pordenone who was a Franciscan friar, visited his temple and procession in CE, and described him in the language of the Church.
William Burton, visited his temple at Puri in , spelled him as Jagarnat and described him to be "in a shape like a serpent, with seven hoods". They are replaced every 8 or 12 or 19 years. Above: logs in transport to prepare the Jagannath icon. When shown with Balabhadra and Subhadra, he is identifiable from his circular eyes compared to the oval or almond shape of the other two abstract icons.
The third difference is the flat head of Jagannath icon, compared to semi-circular carved heads of the other two. It is approximately the same height as Balabhadra, is red in colour, carved from a wooden pillar and clothed, unlike its traditional representation as a chakra in other Vishnu temples.
This form is sometimes called Patita Pavana,  or Dadhi Vaman. It is replaced with a newly carved image every 12 or 19 years approximately, or more precisely according to the luni-solar Hindu calendar when its month of Asadha occurs twice in the same year. According to them Jagannath is Sunnya Purusa, Nirakar and Niranjan who is ever present in Nilachala to do cosmic play Jagannath is painted here in an anthropomorphic form, his four hands carrying the same symbols as Vishnu.
In the Jagannath tradition, he has the attributes of all the avatars of Vishnu. This belief is celebrated by dressing him and worshipping him as different avatars on special occasions. It is therefore believed that Jagannath is worshipped as a wooden murti or Daru Brahma with the Shri Narasimha hymn dedicated to the Narasimha Avatar.
Other scholars refute this interpretation stating that the correct context of the hymn is "Alaxmi Stava" of Arayi. Therefore, while the Vedic connection is subject to interpretation, the overlap in the ideas exist.
Some 19th-century writers saw this as one evidence for Buddhist origins,  now a discredited theory. For example, there exists an unexamined relic in the Jagannath shrine in Puri,  and the local legends state that the shrine relic contains a tooth of the Buddha — a feature common to many cherished Theravada Buddhist shrines in and outside of India.
However, in the Hindu tradition, a dead body is cremated, ashes returned to nature, and the mortal remains or bones are not preserved or adored. The existence of these legends, state some scholars such as Stevenson, suggests that Jagannath may have a Buddhist origin.
The major annual procession festival has many features found in the Mahayana Buddhism traditions. Further the season in which the Ratha-Yatra festival is observed is about the same time when the historic public processions welcomed Buddhist monks for their temporary, annual monsoon-season retirement.
Indrabhuti, the ancient Buddhist king, describes Jagannath as a Buddhist deity in Jnanasidhi. Evidence of the Jain terminology such as of Kaivalya , which means moksha or salvation, is found in the Jagannath tradition. It mentions the worship of a relic memorial in Khandagiri-Udayagiri, on the Kumara hill.
This location is stated to be same as the Jagannath temple site. However, states Starza, a Jain text mentions the Jagannath shrine was restored by Jains, but the authenticity and date of this text is unclear. However, this could also be a later addition, or suggestive of tolerance, mutual support or close relationship between the Jains and the Hindus. The Vaishnava origin theories rely on the iconographic details and the typical presence of the triad of deities, something that Buddhist, Jaina and tribal origins theories have difficulty in coherently explaining.
The colors, state the scholars of the Vaishnava origin theory, link to black-colored Krishna and white-colored Balarama. They add that the goddess originally was Ekanamsa Durga of Shaiva-Shakti tradition, sister of Krishna through his foster family. She was later renamed to Shubhadra Lakshmi per Vaishnava terminology for the divine feminine. While it is true that the Vaishnava Hindus in the eastern region of India worshipped the triad of Balarama, Ekanamsa and Krishna, it does not automatically prove that the Jagannath triad originated from the same.
The historic evidence and current practices suggest that the Jagannath tradition has a strong dedication to the Harihara fusion Shiva-Vishnu idea as well as tantric Shri Vidya practices, neither of which reconcile with the Vaishnava origins proposal. The use of wood as a construction material for the Jagannath icons may also be a tribal practice that continued when Hindus adopted prior practices and merged them with their Vedic abstractions. They continue to have special privileges such as being the first to view the new replacement images of Jagannath carved from wood approximately every 12 years.
Further, this group is traditionally accepted to have the exclusive privilege of serving the principal meals and offerings to Jagannath and his associate deities. According to the Polish Indologist Olgierd M. Starza, this is an interesting parallel but a flawed one because the Kittung deity is produced by burning a piece of wood and too different in its specifics to be the origin of Jagannath. However, states Starza, this theory is weak because the Anga pen features a bird or snake like attached head along with other details that make the tribal deity unlike the Jagannath.
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The temple was built in the 11th century atop its ruins by the progenitor of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, King Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva. The temple is famous for its annual Rath Yatra, or chariot festival, in which the three main temple deities are hauled on huge and elaborately decorated temple cars. Since medieval times, it is also associated with intense religious fervour and faith for all the Hindus all across the globe. This is the heighest ever temple for faith in Jagannath Sanskruti and Hinduism.
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Etymology[ edit ] "Jagannath" is a compound word from Sanskrit , consisting of "Jagat" and "Nath". Thus, Jagannath means "lord of the universe". Both names derive from "Jagannath". This hypothesis states that the Vedic people as they settled into tribal regions adopted the tribal words and called the deity Jagannath.