Posted By: Jon Fergus on: September 13, Previously, we attempted a brief introduction to the great founder of the Sankhya philosophy, the Sage Kapila , along with an exploration of certain fragments relating to the original Sankhya teachings , which have been covered by a thick veil of time. We will attempt now to give a quick introduction to the Sankhya system as it is known today, bringing in theosophical interpretations to provide additional perspectives on key ideas. Sankhya or Samkhya, one of the six Darshanas or schools of Indian philosophy, is said to have been founded by the sage Kapila. Sankhya is said to provide the conceptual framework of Yoga philosophy , and the two schools are seen as a complimentary pair.

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The Samkhya-sutras are a much later work c. Among independent works, mention may be made of Tattvasamasa c. Metaphysics and epistemology For Vachaspati, creation was viewed in terms of the mere presence of the selves and the mere presentation to them of Matter the undifferentiated primeval stuff.

Such a view has obvious difficulties, for it would make creation eternal, because the selves and Matter are eternally copresent. Vijnanabhikshu considered the relation between the selves and Matter to be a real relation that affects Matter but leaves the selves unaffected.

Furthermore, whereas the earlier Samkhya authors, including Vachaspati , did not consider the question about the ontological status of the guna s, Bhikshu regards them as real, as extremely subtle substances—so that each guna is held to be infinite in number. In general, the Samkhya-sutras show a greater Brahmanical influence, and there is a clear tendency to explain away the points of difference between the Samkhya and the Vedanta. The author of the sutras tried to show that the Samkhya doctrines are consistent with theism or even with the Upanishadic conception of brahman.

Vijnanabhikshu made use of such contexts to emphasize that the atheism of Samkhya is taught only to discourage human beings from trying to be God, that originally the Samkhya was theistic, and that the original Vedanta also was theistic. The Upanishadic doctrine of the unity of selves is interpreted by him to mean an absence of difference of kind among selves, which is consistent with the Samkhya.

Maya illusion for Bhikshu means nothing but the prakriti Matter of the Samkhya. The sutras also give cosmic significance to mahat, the first aspect to evolve from Matter, which then means cosmic Intelligence, a sense not found in the karikas. In epistemology the idea of reflection of the spirit in the organs of knowing, particularly in the buddhi , or intelligence, comes to the forefront.

Every cognition jnana is a modification of the buddhi, with consciousness reflected in it. If there is the mere reflection of the self in the state of the buddhi, this can only account for the fact that the state of cognition seems to be a conscious state; it cannot account for the fact that the self considers itself to be the owner and experiencer of that state.

Accounting for this latter fact, Bhikshu postulated a real contact between the self and buddhi as a reflection of the buddhi state back in the self. Vachaspati , taking over a notion emphasized in Indian epistemology for the first time by Kumarila, introduced into the Samkhya theory of knowledge a distinction between two stages of perceptual knowledge.

In the first, a stage of nonconceptualized nirvikalpaka perception, the object of perception is apprehended vaguely and in a most general manner. In the second stage, this vague knowledge alochanamatram is then interpreted and conceptualized by the mind.

The interpretation is not so much synthesis as analysis of the vaguely presented totality into its parts. Bhikshu, however, ascribed to the senses the ability to apprehend determinate properties, even independently of the aid of manas. For Samkhya, in general, error is partial truth; there is no negation of error, only supplementation, though later Samkhya authors tended to ascribe error to wrong interpretation.

An important contribution to epistemology was made by the writers on the Yoga: this concerns the key notion of vikalpa , which stands for mental states referring to pseudo-objects posited only by words. Morality has empirical significance. In the long run, what really matters is knowledge.

The greatest good is freedom—i. A basic text on Hatha Yoga is the Hatha-yoga-pradipika c. Though they continue to remain as an integral part of the Hindu faith, no major religious order thrived on the basis of these philosophies. Load Next Page.


Samkhya Pravachana Sutra

Dizahn The material universe arises out of the conjunction of four kinds of atoms: Furthermore, the sort of inference admitted by the Nyaya, in which the major term is universally present, is rejected because nothing save brahman has this property according to the system. Manifestation is of the five instruments of cognition. The Charvakas regard the scriptures as characterized by the three faults: Read more Read less. Talk:Samkhya Pravachana Sutra — Wikiwand Bhaskara subscribed to the general Vedanta thesis that knowledge is intrinsically true, though falsity is extrinsic to it.



Kit Introductiin say that such entities exist though there is no means of knowing them is regarded as absurd, for no unverifiable assertion of existence is meaningful. Anhankara generates a parvachana sense of self that is based solely on the materiality of the world around Parrot The conjunction of Purusa and the Pradhana is, like that of the halt and the blind, for mutual benefit, that is, for the exhibition of the Pradhana to Purusa and for the isolation of Purusa. To take the case of a coin, for example: The logicians developed the notion of negation to a great degree of sophistication. Compassion also is impossible ; for compassion implies the desire to alleviate, remove or prevent suffering, pravachaha prior to creation there is no existence of the Jivas, Indriyas, Bodies, and Objects, and conse quently no pain, no suffering. According to Tattvarthasutra, a major Jain text, the severance of vitalities out of passion is injury, according to the Purushartha Siddhyupaya, non-manifestation of passions like attachment is non-injury, and manifestation of such passions itroduction injury. Hence the twofold creation is established. For the Buddhi Tattva, being derived from Prakriti, is unintelli gent ; hence its Adhyavasaya also is unintelligent, like a jar, etc.


Movements: Sankhya (2)




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