In the derivative "five temperament" system, the different scores are grouped into their corresponding temperaments, and considered inborn types. One key difference is in the "high wanted" scores in the area of Control. A distinction is made between men and women, with men being "dependent", and women, rather than really being dependent, only being "tolerant" of control by others. This is attributed to "the stereotypical role of women in Western Culture", where they were often dependent, and have simply learned to tolerate control from others.

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During the Korean War in he was recalled into the U. Navy and did research on understanding and predicting how any given group of men would work together. After the Navy, he taught and did research at several institutions including Harvard, the University of Chicago, and the University of California at Berkeley. While he was successful, he also found that he was straining at the edges of traditional techniques. In the late s, he came into contact with a psychotherapeutic group for young psychiatrists, designed to help them learn more about themselves before they started helping others.

As a member of the group he was admonished to tell the truth, hear feedback from others about how they really felt about him, and open himself to the world of feelings. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the development of more self-aware, open organizations and individuals with greater self-esteem. It is our desire that advancements in understanding the human element will at least match our advancements in technology.

As we realize the tremendous power of truth, recognize our awesome capacity to determine our own lives, and overcome our fear of looking openly and honestly at ourselves, we can attain limitless heights of productivity and personal fulfillment in our organizations, our relationships, and ourselves. Will Schutz, Ph. Inspired, Schutz studied new techniques in human behavior as much as he could, including psychosynthesis, psychodrama, bioenergetics, Rolfing, and gestalt therapy. Common to all were the use of nonverbal methods, especially movement and imagery.

He began to incorporate parts of these nontraditional methods into his own group techniques. In early he wrote the best-seller, Joy: Expanding Human Awareness, which summarized the techniques he had been learning, as well as others he had devised, and explained how to use them. He was still successful in academia and was consulting with various organizations, but he had little energy for his job.

So, in late he moved to Esalen Institute , a growth center in Big Sur, California, where he was stimulated, excited and motivated to use his creativity. There he offered encounter groups—workshops incorporating the ideas of T-groups with the experiential methods he had learned. In addition, he studied and experienced a variety of approaches—physical, psychological, and spiritual—for developing the full potential of each person and each interaction between people.

While at Esalen, he wrote a number of books including Here Comes Everybody , a follow-up to Joy, and Elements of Encounter , in which he chronicled the principles of encounter groups. In , he left Esalen and began to integrate his scientific work with the experiential material he had learned.

From these early experiences, the key principles of truth, choice, and awareness crystallized and the form of The Human Element took shape. These instruments, designed specifically for training, were incorporated into The Human Element.

From until Schutz, with his wife Ailish, created and led an international community of participants and practitioners—individuals, leaders, trainers, consultants, coaches, and organizational development specialists—devoted to the principles of The Human Element. Purchased by Business Consultants, Inc. Contact us to learn more.


Fundamental interpersonal relations orientation



William Schutz



FIRO; a three-dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior.


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