ELECTROACOUSTICS THE ANALYSIS OF TRANSDUCTION AND ITS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND PDF

Applications[ edit ] Mechanical—electrical analogies are used to represent the function of a mechanical system as an equivalent electrical system by drawing analogies between mechanical and electrical parameters. A mechanical system by itself can be so represented, but analogies are of greatest use in electromechanical systems where there is a connection between mechanical and electrical parts. Analogies are especially useful in analysing mechanical filters. These are filters constructed of mechanical parts but designed to work in an electrical circuit through transducers.

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Purple is inner ear. The circuit diagram shows an impedance analogy model of the human ear. The ear canal section is followed by a transformer representing the eardrum. The eardrum is the transducer between the acoustic waves in air in the ear canal and the mechanical vibrations in the bones of the middle ear.

At the cochlea there is another change of medium from mechanical vibrations to the fluid filling the cochlea. This example thus demonstrates the power of electrical analogies in bringing together three domains acoustic, mechanical and fluid flow into a single unified whole.

If the nerve impulses flowing to the brain had also been included in the model then the electrical domain would have made four domains encompassed in the model. The cochlea portion of the circuit uses a finite element analysis of the continuous transmission line of the cochlear duct.

An ideal representation of such a structure would use infinitesimal elements, and there would thus be an infinite number of them. In this model the cochlea is divided into sections and each section is modelled using a small number of lumped elements. That is, a mechanical impedance is represented as an electrical impedance and a mechanical resistance is represented as an electrical resistance in the electrical equivalent circuit.

It is also natural to think of force as analogous to voltage generator voltages are often called electromotive force and velocity as analogous to current. It is this basic analogy that leads to the analogy between electrical and mechanical impedance. Elements that are in series in the mechanical system are in parallel in the electrical equivalent circuit and vice versa. Likewise, velocity in the mechanical domain is transformed into voltage in the electrical domain. A two-port device that transforms a voltage into an analogous quantity can be represented as a simple transformer.

A device that transforms a voltage into an analogue of the dual property of voltage that is, current, whose analogue is velocity is represented as a gyrator. However, many practical transducers, especially at audio frequencies , work by electromagnetic induction and are governed by just such a relationship.

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Impedance analogy

Purple is inner ear. The circuit diagram shows an impedance analogy model of the human ear. The ear canal section is followed by a transformer representing the eardrum. The eardrum is the transducer between the acoustic waves in air in the ear canal and the mechanical vibrations in the bones of the middle ear. At the cochlea there is another change of medium from mechanical vibrations to the fluid filling the cochlea.

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