Antiquity pre-Gupta [ edit ] An Indus valley civilization seal show two men spearing one another in a duel which seem to be centered on a woman. A statue of a spear thrower was also excavated from an Indus valley site. Most deities of the Hindu-Buddhist pantheon are armed with their own personal weapon, and are revered not only as master martial artists but often as originators of those systems themselves. Stories describing Krishna report that he sometimes engaged in wrestling matches where he used knee strikes to the chest, punches to the head, hair pulling, and strangleholds. Epics often describe the duels between deities and god-like heroes as lasting a month or more.
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Translated from the Sanskrit edition by Peter Peterson, Bombay, Chakravarti, M. Copyright reserved. The First Instructor I have composed this work in brief by extracting the excellent utterances of God Lord Siva found in his Dhanurveda the Veda relating to the science of Archery and wise instructions of Sage Vyasa. After examining the Trainee disciple thoroughly, the preceptor will give a bow to a Brahmin disciple, who is not greedy, cunning, ungrateful or foolish.
These are carried out with a bow dhanu or a circular missile cakra or a lance kunta or a sword khadga or a knife churika and mace gada and lastly by fighting with the bare hands only. Thereafter he offers weapons to his disciples.
The ascetics and other devotees of Lord Siva are to be worshipped, with sincere devotion. On the arms Kesava will be invoked, with the similar mantra and Brahma will be prayed to in the navel, and on the two thighs the protection of Lord Ganesa will be invoked, chanting the following words at each place respectively: Om Hom Sikha Sthane Sankaraya namah, Om Hom Vahvoh Kesavaya namah, Om Hom Nabhimadhye Brahmane namah, Om Hom Janghayor Ganapataye namah Such placement of the guardian deities on the limbs should be done in order to derive welfare and well-being of the disciple and to prevent anyone from doing harm to him by chanting inauspicious mantras.
The targets during the training from easier to more difficult ones First of all an archer should learn how to pierce a flower with a leaf but without any fruit, and then he will pierce a leaf with a fruit, and then a fish. These are the three types of piercing. By practising shooting of arrows gradually at targets in such manner the hero will achieve the skill to pierce his targets more effectively and efficiently. He is at ease in such a position and he achieves success.
If it is cast in the western direction, the archer will get wealth and cereals. If the arrow is cast to the northern direction the hero will get good results. If it is cast in the opposite direction, different types of auspicious happenings may take place. In such activities with weapons, a hero will achieve happiness, nourishment and success in weapon training.
The Measurement of Bow The first form of bow is a serviceable or proper type. The second one is a bow which is used in fighting battle. A bow which is less powerful in weight and length than the arms of the hero is regarded as an auspicious one.
An archer, who is overburdened by his bow, never hits the target. The bows of the Gods are heavier and superior to those of the human beings. In the silver age treta yuga it was held by Raghava. During the bronze age dvapara yuga it was taken by Drona, who was a Brahmana by caste.
But there are some bows which are more extended in size and are made by a new technique. A bow in a very dilapidated condition loses its smoothness. Such a bow does not reach the target, external or internal. Moreover, if such an archer is being attacked, he cannot shoot back effectively. Bows without such defects are considered to be very effective for all types of activities. It was a bow, the measurement of which was seven times greater than an ordinary bow which is made by Viswakarma.
The bow serves all purposes. For charioteers and foot soldiers, however, a bow made of Bamboo is more useful. The characteristics of a bow string I shall narrate the characteristics of the bow string, and these are to be applied while making a string. Very light silken threads should be used. The hair on the skin should be removed thoroughly.
The characteristics of arrows I shall narrate the auspicious characteristics of Arrows. Arrows should neither be very heavy nor very fine. They should not be made of unripe materials which are grown on barren land. An arrow with small joints or having splits should be avoided. The material for an arrow should be selected thus… The arrow should have matured joints, it should be made with fully ripe materials, the colour of the arrow is to be brownish and gathered at the right time.
The material should be hard and round. The tree from which the arrow is to be made should grow on fertile land. This is the measurement of an arrow which is to be placed on the bow for drawing and discharging towards the target. The gap between two feathers should be six fingers. Such an arrow is fit for practising by trainees etc. The female arrow hits a target at a distance while a male arrow can firmly pierce tough targets.
The characteristics of the tip or arrowhead The arrowhead should be made of pure iron. It should be sharp and pointed and without any sort of disorder. The tip of such an arrow is made of pointed iron measuring three fingers. The methods of annealing arrowheads I shall narrate the process of annealing arrowheads. The following divine medicine is to be spread onto the head of the arrow so that it can pierce an unbreakable armour just like a leaf of a tree.
That paste should be rubbed on the weapon and then it should be heated on fire. If the arrow fails to pierce anything i. The arrowhead is to be covered with such a paste and then heated over a fire.
Then it should be dipped into clear water for its permanent protection and strength. Now the two types of rounds viz. Naracas i. In some naracas, there are five broad wings and such rounds are always effective in hitting the targets. Hand position for drawing an arrow and position for releasing an arrow. The body should be made bent to the left at least one cubit down. This is a position by which an archer is sure to hit a difficult target. Release and shooting of arrows by a warrior.
This form of the grip is then applied by a shooter for shooting rounds at a distant target. Such a release is to be used when an archer shoots his arrow into a thick target.
Methods of holding the bow an aiming the arrow There are three methods of holding a bow and aiming an arrow, namely i downwards; ii upwards and iii straight. Among these three methods, the archer adopts the particular one which is suitable to serve his purpose. If the aim is straight, it will certainly pierce the target and if the aim is upwards, then by applying greater strength, the archer will invariably pierce his target.
If it hits the horn of the target i. If it hits the ear of the target i. Vyayas are of five varieties. In case of a mixed warfare citra yuddha , arrows shot being quick and many hit the outer end of the target i.
Targets and their varieties: Targets can be of four varieties — 1 Sthir i. This is a process of shooting which is blameless and beyond ordinary measure. To pierce such targets one has to practise very hard. Through hard practice an archer achieves firm grip and ability to aim and shoot arrows quickly. Hence, an archer should always practise shooting in front of his teacher. In the course of time, the archer should practise shooting arrows as well as rounds with both the hands.
An archer should practise in the standing position keeping the feet parallel and one cubit apart from each other named Visakha and aiming at the root of the target i. In the afternoon the target should be shot in the eastern direction so as to achieve a better aim at the target. Arrows should not be discharged southwards except in times of war. If the same is set at a distance of forty bow-lengths, it is regarded as a medium one, whereas a target at a distance of twenty bow-lengths is regarded as the lowest type.
Intermissions anadhyaya in learning shooting As all activities are prohibited on the eighth and the fourteenth day of the lunar half month and also on the day of the new-moon and on the day of the full moon, shooting practice is also prohibited on those days.
Yoga-Breath control in shooting At the time of drawing the bow, the consent of the preceptor should be prayed for.
At the time of drawing the bow, life-giving breath also should be inhaled to fill up the lungs carefully. An archer who desires success in his art should practise such breathing exercises Pranayama. The descendants of the Bhrgu clan like Parasurama desire that the arrow of the disciple should hit the target at a great distance.
A king desires a spectacular display of hitting targets by his guards and soldiers , while the common people just want targets to be pierced well. The view of the target should be covered by the fist and his eyes should gaze ahead of the arrow. An archer who undertakes regular and hard practice never misses his target. If one practises this regularly, he increases the strength of his arms and will become successful in piercing tough targets. An arrow released from such a position will undoubtedly veer far away from the target.
In such a situation the archer never becomes unsuccessful in hitting the target; that is, the archer should cover the target with correct Dhanumusti and Gunamusti his grip of bow and arrow in order to pierce it. The correct trajectory of arrows If the target and tip at the arrow are aligned, and the eye aim without any wavering, an arrow shot from such a triple alignment cannot miss the target.
Description of the four tough targets If an archer can penetrate the following four types of tough targets, namely, those made of earthen pot or a lump of earth, his arrows cannot be countered destroyed even by a thunderbolt. An archer who pierces such plates with a single arrow is known by the designation of Drdhghati — a tough marksman marksman of tough targets.
Chandmari and one who can pierce two round balls golakayuga at a time, always becomes victorious. He should hold some arrows curved in his grip. He should sever the head of the animal or enemy with an arrow with a semi-circular tip or an arrow having two tips. Aiming at moving targets: If two wooden balls are thrown from in front upwards to a great distance, they cannot be penetrated by an arrow which follows from behind; but if the arrow sticks into the ball behind like a tail, or it hits but does not get attached there, the archer is called a marksman of moving targets.
DHANURVEDA ENGLISH PDF
Translated from the Sanskrit edition by Peter Peterson, Bombay, Chakravarti, M. Copyright reserved. The First Instructor 1. I have composed this work in brief by extracting the excellent utterances of God Lord Siva found in his Dhanurveda the Veda relating to the science of Archery and wise instructions of Sage Vyasa.
Vasista’s Dhanurveda Samhita
Kazrakasa This meant laying down of thorough instructions and formularies englisj other sages like ParaSurama, Visvamitra, Vaisampayana and Ausanas whose texts have been recovered in manuscript form from libraries of Tirupati, Nepal Darbar, Asiatic society, Bombay, Deccan College Research Institute, Pune and Oriental library of Baroda. The elephant should be made devoid of fear by putting up fire circles. Like us on Facebook to send us a private message. Needle or sharp pointed instrument. He should prove his intelligence in arranging the army in array and also provide such work to the infantry that fits ehanurveda. Some aspects of the art, such as the unarmed techniques or fighting in armour, are today practiced almost exclusively by the Nihang order of Sikhs [ citation needed ]. The Gurjara-Pratiharas continuously fought off Arab invasions, particularly during the Caliphate campaigns in India.
Tagal Kings usually belonged to the kshatria warrior class and thus served as heads of the army. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. A war with bows and arrows is considered the best and most manly, that with a spear ranks next, a fight with a sword is bad and a fight with hands, the most mean. In fighting they show much speed and agility and blend courage and skill in squatting down and rising up again. Specially the charisieer should practice the kaisika movement standing either In 5 i: Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life.