Top of page Genetics A small study of genetic variation within and between invasive exotic populations in Hawaii and native populations in Costa Rica found that variation was low throughout, also concluding that genetic variation was unrelated to invasiveness in C. Some variation in shade tolerance, however, cannot be excluded Binggeli, , though this was not confirmed in studies by DeWalt et al. The chromosome number reported for C. Physiology and Phenology In Hawaii, flowering and fruiting occurs all year round where there is no dry season and rainfall exceeds mm per year. In Brazil, the plant flowers throughout the year Melo et al.
|Published (Last):||16 February 2018|
|PDF File Size:||16.97 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||8.54 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, cm long, cm wide, 5-nerved, upper surface sparsely strigose, lower surface finely bristly, margins ciliate, subentire to crenulate-denticulate, apex acute to short-acuminate, base rounded to subcordate, petioles 0. Pedicels 0. Berries mm long. Seeds 0. See also Invasive Plants of the World Weber, , p. Where invasive, the tree establishes in forest gaps and other disturbed sites, forming dense and almost impenetrable thickets that shade out all native vegetation due to the large leaves.
Fruits are abundantly produced and seeds dispersed mainly by birds but also may be carried by animals moving through the thickets. The species is probably not resistant to fire, [sic] however, it rapidly colonizes burned areas. The plant is a serious weed in mesic and wet environments on the Hawaiian Island and on the Seychelles. Invasive Plants of the World Weber, , p. It is an aggressive invader which shades out all vegetation below it Wester and Wood The seeds are principally dispersed by alien frugivorous birds, but any organism moving through the thickets will carry seeds away with it.
It is probably not resistant to fire, an unlikely event in its habitat, but it rapidly colonizes burned areas. Plants flower and fruit prolifically throughout the year, producing sweet, pulpy, dark-blue berries filled with minute seeds. On a good soil, this weed can produce an impenetrable stand. It thrives both in open grassland and in deep shade, and can result in greatly increased weeding costs in commercial plantations. A pioneering species after disturbance, in forests it tends to displace native plants.
In Hawaii, widespread in areas that receive more than mm of rain annually; from almost sea level to m. It can also be found in areas of annual rainfall in excess of 76oo mm , with no dry season. Smith, ; p. Invasive Plants of the World Weber, , pp.
Physical description[ edit ] Clidemia hirta is a densely branching long-lived perennial shrub normally growing 0. In more shaded habitats it grows much taller than it does in exposed areas, where it typically grows less than 1 m tall. The younger stems are rounded and are covered in large, stiff, brown or reddish-colored hairs they are strigose. The oppositely arranged simple leaves are borne on stalks. They are oval or egg-shaped in outline with broad end at base, with pointed tips, and almost entire to finely toothed margins.