New World monkeys dig the larvae and pupae out from the flattened leaf-like stems, or " cladodes ", of the cacti. Recent work in South America has identified four genetically-structured [2] ecotypes of C. The moth can be identified only by a microscopic examination of dissected male genitalia. They generally appear as typical Pyralidae , with the pronounced labial palps of the female, thus the name "snout moths".

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Stiling suggests that this may be an effective method of reducing damage to Mexican Opuntia plantations, should C. In Florida Opuntia plants were protected by cages as soon as C. However, cages prevent cross-pollination and are subject to toppling over in the tropical storms and hurricanes that frequent South Florida. When the cages topple they can knock over and kill the cacti inside. In , all the cages were removed before a hurricane arrived and they were not reinstalled.

Instead, a team of four trained volunteers was assigned to identify C. The team made weekly visits to the cacti Stiling, Solis et al. Bloem et al. Stem injection of mevinphos, dimethoate, and monocrotophos was unpromising. However good protection against larval attack was achieved with cover sprays of the same insecticides. A cover spray of cypermethin gave complete protection against larval attack. A cover spray of cypermethrin mixed with chlorpyrifos was very effective against cactus moth and Dactylopius opuntiae.

Chlorpyrifos alone was also effective against both insects. Carbaryl gave poor to excellent control. Biological: Mahr states that, "Biological control of C. Several natural enemies of C. Most of the known natural enemies are generalists and therefore pose potential risk to several native pyralid moths that use Opuntia throughout North America. Biological control probably can reduce the abundance of C. The relative benefits and risks of biological control need to be carefully assessed prior to any operational biological control programs.

While these parasitoid species may be able to lessen the amount of damage to cacti by C. Also, if the parasitoids did become abundant, it is possible they might spread back to the Caribbean, lessening the abundance of C.

They observe that the Sterile Insect Technique SIT could be one method that may stop the moth and perhaps push back its leading edge. The authors state "Results of the study suggest that an overflooding ratio as low as can effectively suppress C. Finally, the dispersal ability of C. A survey of natural enemies was conducted and the distribution of the cactus moth and the Opuntia host plants were assessed. Four haplotypes of the moth were found Marsico et al. Among natural enemies, the most promising candidate for biocontrol is the gregarious larval parasitoid Apanteles n.

Brachonidae , still under study. This wasp was misidentified as A. Several ecological studies on the host cacti and the natural enemies are in progress.

Especies invasoras - Insectos. Fecha de acceso. The biological campaign against prickly pear. Evans, D. Australian Caterpillars. Florida Entomologist December vol. Cactoblastis cactorum Berg Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. The cactus feeding Phycitinae: a contribution toward a revision of the American Pyralidoid moths of the family Phycitidae.

Proceedings of the National Museum Smithsonian Institution Hight, S. Carpenter, K. Bloem, S. Bloem, R. Pemberton, and P. Florida Entomologist 85 3 : Bloem, K. Bloem, and J. Cactoblastis cactorum Lepidoptera: Pyralidae : observations of courtship and mating behaviors at two locations on the Gulf coast of Florida. Florida Entomologist M, and D. Distribution and dispersal of Cactoblastis cactorum Lepidoptera: Pyralidae , and exotic opuntia-feeding moth.

Florida Entomologist 81 1 : Leibee, G. Chemical control of Cactoblastis cactorum Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Florida Entomologist 84 4 : Mahr, D. Cactoblastis cactorum Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in Noth America. A Workshop of Assessment and Planning. Mann, J. Cactus feeding insects and mites. Bulletin Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington D. Consumption of Platyopuntias by wild vertebrates. Nobel ed Cacti: Biology and Uses. Island Press, pages California, USA.

Pemberton, R. Cactoblastis cactorum Lepidoptera:Pyralidae in the United States. An Immigrant biological control agent or an introduction of the nursery industry. American Entomology Florida Entomologist 84 4. Pettey, F. The biological control of prickly pear in South Africa. Dept of Agri. Union of South Africa Robertson, H.

Spatial and temporal patterns of predation by ants on eggs of Cactoblastis cactorum. Ecological Entomology Soberon, J. Golubov, and J. The Importance of Opuntia in Mexico and routes of invasion and impact of Cactoblastis cactorum Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Solis, M. Stemphen, and D. Tracking the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg. Stange, G. Effects of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide on the location of host by the moth Cactoblastis cactorum.

Oecologia Oecologia Stiling, P. Potential non-target effects of a biological control agent, prickly pear moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg Lepidoptera: Pyralidae , in North America, and possible management actions. Biological Invasions 4: , Varnham, K. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report Peterborough: United Kingdom.

Moran; J. Diversity and Distributions, Vol. Cactoblastis cactorum in the USA: a general overview and history.

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Cactoblastis cactorum

Introduction Back to Top The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg Lepidoptera: Pyralidae arrived in in the Florida Keys, and this invasive species has become a serious threat to the diversity and abundance of Opuntia cactus in North America Zimmermann et al. The spread of this moth raises the following major concerns: 1 potential harm to rare opuntioid species prickly pear and related cacti; members of the subfamily Opuntioideae: Cactaceae , 2 the endangerment of wild opuntioids in the southwestern United States and Mexico and consequent effects on entire desert ecosystems Perez-Sandi , Soberon et al. Figure 1. Adult cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg. Photograph by D. Habeck and F.





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