The following is from Dr. He went on to ask: View the e-Sword Manual? He also wrote an entire Arabic dictionary by himself! John Reynolds, the originator of the translation project, who presented the idea to the commission appointed by King James to study divisions in the Church of England, died before the Authorized Version was published. Another Time magazine article reported that Martini brought together a syncretistic convocation of over religious leaders from around the world to promote a new age, one-world religion.
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See also: Tiberian vocalization A page from the Aleppo Codex , showing the extensive marginal annotations. By long tradition, a ritual Sefer Torah Torah scroll could contain only the Hebrew consonantal text — nothing added, nothing taken away. The Masoretic codices however, provide extensive additional material, called masorah, to show correct pronunciation and cantillation , protect against scribal errors, and annotate possible variants.
The manuscripts thus include vowel points , pronunciation marks and stress accents in the text, short annotations in the side margins, and longer more extensive notes in the upper and lower margins and collected at the end of each book. These notes were added because the Masoretes recognized the possibility of human error in copying the Hebrew Bible.
The Masoretes were not working with the original Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible and corruptions had already crept into the versions they copied. The fixation of the text was considered to be in the nature of legcuffs upon its exposition. The Masoretic annotations are found in various forms: a in separate works, e. In rare cases, the notes are written between the lines. The first word of each Biblical book is also as a rule surrounded by notes.
The latter are called the Initial Masorah; the notes on the side margins or between the columns are called the Small Masora parva or Mp or Inner Masorah Masora marginalis ; and those on the lower and upper margins, the Large or Outer Masorah Masora magna or Mm[Mas. The name "Large Masorah" is applied sometimes to the lexically arranged notes at the end of the printed Bible, usually called the Final Masorah,  Masora finalis , or the Masoretic Concordance.
The Large Masorah is more copious in its notes. The Final Masorah comprises all the longer rubrics for which space could not be found in the margin of the text, and is arranged alphabetically in the form of a concordance. The quantity of notes the marginal Masorah contains is conditioned by the amount of vacant space on each page. In the manuscripts it varies also with the rate at which the copyist was paid and the fanciful shape he gave to his gloss.
The Masora is concise in style with a profusion of abbreviations, requiring a considerable amount of knowledge for their full understanding. It was quite natural that a later generation of scribes would no longer understand the notes of the Masoretes and consider them unimportant; by the late medieval period they were reduced to mere ornamentation of the manuscripts. The lack of such discrepancies in the Aleppo Codex is one of the reasons for its importance; the scribe who copied the notes, presumably Aaron ben Moses ben Asher , probably wrote them originally.
As the prose books of the Bible were hardly ever written in stichs, the copyists, in order to estimate the amount of work, had to count the letters. The category of marginal Masorah is further divided into the Masorah parva small Masorah in the outer side margins and the Masorah magna large Masorah , traditionally located at the top and bottom margins of the text.
Beyond simply counting the letters, the Masorah parva consists of word-use statistics, similar documentation for expressions or certain phraseology, observations on full or defective writing, references to the Kethiv-Qere readings and more. These observations are also the result of a passionate zeal to safeguard the accurate transmission of the sacred text. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia BHS includes an apparatus referring the reader to the large Masorah, which is printed separately.
It contains information and statistics regarding the number of words in a book or section, etc. Thus, Book of Leviticus is the middle verse in the Pentateuch.
The collation of manuscripts and the noting of their differences furnished material for the Text-Critical Masorah. The close relation which existed in earlier times from the Soferim to the Amoraim inclusive between the teacher of tradition and the Masorete, both frequently being united in one person, accounts for the Exegetical Masorah.
Finally, the invention and introduction of a graphic system of vocalization and accentuation gave rise to the Grammatical Masorah. Given that the Masoretes would not alter the sacred consonantal text, the Kethiv-Qere notes were a way of "correcting" or commenting on the text for any number of reasons grammatical, theological, aesthetic, etc.
Marginal notes were permitted only in private copies, and the first mention of such notes is found in the case of R. This view was adopted by the later Midrash and by the majority of Masoretes. All these ascriptions mean one and the same thing: that the changes were assumed to have been made by the Men of the Great Synagogue. Some regard it as a correction of Biblical language authorized by the Soferim for homiletical purposes. Others take it to mean a mental change made by the original writers or redactors of Scripture; i.
Safeguarding of the Tetragrammaton ; e. Removal of application of the names of pagan gods, e. In the geonic schools, the first term was taken to signify certain vowel-changes which were made in words in pause or after the article; the second, the cancellation in a few passages of the "vav" conjunctive, where it had by some been wrongly read.
The objection to such an explanation is that the first changes would fall under the general head of fixation of pronunciation, and the second under the head of Qere and Ketiv i. Various explanations have, therefore, been offered by ancient as well as modern scholars without, however, succeeding in furnishing a completely satisfactory solution.
The origin of the other three Psalms ; Job , is doubtful. According to some, they are due to mistaken majuscular letters; according to others, they are later insertions of originally omitted weak consonants.
Genesis , , , , , Numbers , , , , Deuteronomy , 2 Samuel , Isaiah , Ezekiel , , Psalms The significance of the dots is disputed. Some hold them to be marks of erasure; others believe them to indicate that in some collated manuscripts the stigmatized words were missing, hence that the reading is doubtful; still others contend that they are merely a mnemonic device to indicate homiletic explanations which the ancients had connected with those words; finally, some maintain that the dots were designed to guard against the omission by copyists of text-elements which, at first glance or after comparison with parallel passages, seemed to be superfluous.
Instead of dots some manuscripts exhibit strokes, vertical or else horizontal. The first two explanations are unacceptable for the reason that such faulty readings would belong to Qere and Ketiv, which, in case of doubt, the majority of manuscripts would decide.
The last two theories have equal probability. The exact shape varies between different manuscripts and printed editions. In many manuscripts, a reversed nun is found referred to as a nun hafucha by the masoretes. In some earlier printed editions, they are shown as the standard nun upside down or rotated, because the printer did not want to bother to design a character to be used only nine times.
The recent scholarly editions of the Masoretic Text show the reversed nun as described by the masoretes. In some manuscripts, however, other symbols are occasionally found instead. These are sometimes referred to in rabbinical literature as simaniyot markers. This demarcation of this text leads to the later use of the inverted nun markings.
Genesis, Exodus and Leviticus and Deuteronomy as we know them but Numbers was really three separate volumes Numbers — followed by Numbers —36 and the third text from there to the end of Numbers. Besides introducing the Masorah into the margin, he compiled at the close of his Bible a concordance of the Masoretic glosses for which he could not find room in a marginal form, and added an elaborate introduction — the first treatise on the Masorah ever produced.
Due to its wide distribution, and in spite of its many errors, this work is frequently considered as the textus receptus of the Masorah .
Levita compiled likewise a vast Masoretic concordance, Sefer ha-Zikronot, which still lies in the National Library at Paris unpublished. The study is indebted also to R. However, other texts, including many of those from Qumran , differ substantially, indicating that the Masoretic Text was but one of a diverse set of Biblical writings Lane Fox —; Tov The approximately 1,year-old En-Gedi Scroll was found in but had not had its contents reconstructed until Researchers were able to recover 35 complete and partial lines of text from the Book of Leviticus and the text they deciphered is completely identical with the consonantal framework of the Masoretic Text.
Jacob ben Hayyim ibn Adonijah , —, Venice The second Rabbinic Bible served as the base for all future editions. It has been much prized because of its excellent and clear type; but no manuscripts were used in its preparation. Benjamin Kennicott , , Oxford As well as the van der Hooght text, this included the Samaritan Pentateuch and a huge collection of variants from manuscripts and early printed editions; while this collection has many errors, it is still of some value.
The collection of variants was corrected and extended by Giovanni Bernardo De Rossi — , but his publications gave only the variants without a complete text. It had many differences from earlier editions in vowels, notes and lay-out, based on a comparison with old manuscripts and a correction of misprints based on analysis of grammatical principles.
There were extensive textual notes justifying all these alterations. Heidenheim also divided each weekly Sabbath reading into seven sections seven people should be called up each Sabbath , as there had been considerable variation in practice about where to make the divisions, and his divisions are now accepted by nearly all Ashkenazi communities.
Samson Raphael Hirsch used this text omitting the textual notes in his own commentary, and it became the standard text in Germany. It was frequently reprinted there, again without the textual notes, up to World War II , and the edition of Jack Mazin London, is an exact copy. Max Letteris , ; 2nd edition, published British and Foreign Bible Society The edition was yet another copy of van der Hooght. The edition, however, was carefully checked against old manuscripts and early printed editions, and has a very legible typeface.
It is probably the most widely reproduced text of the Hebrew Bible in history, with many dozens of authorised reprints and many more pirated and unacknowledged ones.
See also: Tiberian vocalization A page from the Aleppo Codex , showing the extensive marginal annotations. By long tradition, a ritual Sefer Torah Torah scroll could contain only the Hebrew consonantal text — nothing added, nothing taken away. The Masoretic codices however, provide extensive additional material, called masorah, to show correct pronunciation and cantillation , protect against scribal errors, and annotate possible variants. The manuscripts thus include vowel points , pronunciation marks and stress accents in the text, short annotations in the side margins, and longer more extensive notes in the upper and lower margins and collected at the end of each book. These notes were added because the Masoretes recognized the possibility of human error in copying the Hebrew Bible.
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