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The impact and resulting fires caused the collapse of the Twin Towers and the destruction and damage of other buildings in the World Trade Center complex. The Pentagon was severely damaged by the impact of the airliner and the resulting fire. The hijackers also crashed a fourth plane into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after the passengers and flight crew attempted to regain control of the aircraft. The report faulted both the Clinton and the Bush administrations with " failure of imagination ".
The first elaborated theories appeared in Europe. One week after the attacks, the "inside job" theory was the subject of a thesis by a researcher from the French National Centre for Scientific Research published in Le Monde. Other theories sprang from the far corners of the globe within weeks. One explanation is that the rise in popularity stemmed more from growing criticism of the Iraq War and the newly re-elected President George W.
Bush than from any discovery of new or more compelling evidence or an improvement in the technical quality of the presentation of the theories. The distortions keep alive grievances and filter out facts that would challenge popular prejudices and self-serving propaganda. It is a mainstream political reality. The list was ranked by following and traction. Jones and Mike Berger have further added that the death of Osama bin Laden  did not change their questions about the attacks, nor provide closure.
There is a range of opinions about how this might have been achieved. This, according to them, would lead to a general call for a new official investigation into the events of September 11, And then, when everybody is convinced, then the population will rise up and demand a new investigation with government resources, and that investigation will tell us what actually happened.
Consequently, the paper concludes that there is evidence of unusual option market activity in the days leading up to September 11 that is consistent with investors trading on advance knowledge of the attacks.
Poteshman, The Journal of Business This study was intended to address the "great deal of speculation about whether option market activity indicated that the terrorists or their associates had traded in the days leading up to September 11 on advance knowledge of the impending attacks. On September 10, more trading in Chicago saw the purchase of 4, put options in American Airlines, the other airline involved in the hijackings, with a mere call options in American purchased that day.
No other airline companies has unusual put to call ratio in the days leading up to the attacks. Citigroup Inc. Morgan Stanley , which occupied 22 floors at the World Trade Center, experienced bigger-than-normal pre-attack trading of options that profited when stock prices fell. Other companies directly affected by the tragedy had similar jumps. It was estimated that the trader or traders would have realized a five million dollar profit. The Securities and Exchange Commission launched an insider trading investigation in which Osama bin Laden was a suspect after receiving information from at least one Wall Street Firm.
Some unusual trading did in fact occur, but each such trade proved to have an innocuous explanation. For example, the volume of put options — investments that pay off only when a stock drops in price — surged in the parent companies of United Airlines on September 6 and American Airlines on September 10 — highly suspicious trading on its face.
A single U. Similarly, much of the seemingly suspicious trading in American on September 10 was traced to a specific U. These examples typify the evidence examined by the investigation. The SEC and the FBI, aided by other agencies and the securities industry, devoted enormous resources to investigating this issue, including securing the cooperation of many foreign governments. These investigators have found that the apparently suspicious consistently proved innocuous.
Elsis says: "There is only one explanation for this They set up hotlines between command centers while NORAD increased its fighter coverage and installed radar to watch airspace over the continent. I thought it was very strange. According to a former CIA operations chief, "many people in the U. The picture shows the simulated exterior buckling of 7 WTC during the collapse.
The plane crashes and resulting fires caused the collapse of the World Trade Center. Controlled demolition conspiracy theories say the collapse of the North Tower, South Tower, or of 7 World Trade Center was caused by explosives installed in the buildings in advance.
Jones , architect Richard Gage , software engineer Jim Hoffman , and theologian David Ray Griffin , argue that the aircraft impacts and resulting fires could not have weakened the buildings sufficiently to initiate a catastrophic collapse, and that the buildings would not have collapsed completely, nor at the speeds that they did, without additional factors weakening the structures.
Jones, and others state that thermite and nano-thermite composites in the dust and debris were found following the collapse of the three buildings. The article contained no scientific rebuttal and the editor in chief of the publication subsequently resigned.
Federal investigators at the National Institute of Standards and Technology state that enormous quantities of thermite would have to be applied to the structural columns to damage them, but Jones disputed this, saying that he and others were investigating "superthermite". Blanchard also said that a verifiable chain of possession needs to be established for the tested beams, which did not occur with the beams Jones tested, raising questions of whether the metal pieces tested could have been cut away from the debris pile with acetylene torches, shears, or other potentially contaminated equipment while on site, or exposed to trace amounts of thermite or other compounds while being handled, while in storage, or while being transferred from Ground Zero to memorial sites.
Excavating equipment was cooled by water spray due to concerns about melting from underground fires. Jones also said that molten steel found in the rubble was evidence of explosives, as an ordinary airplane fire would not generate enough heat to produce this, citing photographs of red debris being removed by construction equipment, but Blanchard said that if there had been any molten steel in the rubble any excavation equipment encountering it would have been immediately damaged.
It has been theorized the "thermite material" found was primer paint. Thomas said that in order to cut through a vertical steel beam, special high-temperature containment must be added to prevent the molten iron from dropping down, and that the thermite reaction is too slow for it to be practically used in building demolition.
Thomas pointed out that when Jesse Ventura hired New Mexico Tech to conduct a demonstration showing nanothermite slicing through a large steel beam, the nanothermite produced copious flame and smoke but no damage to the beam, even though it was in a horizontal, and therefore optimally positioned.
NIST and many scientists refuse to debate conspiracy theorists because they feel it would give those theories unwarranted credibility. Instead, they argue that the Pentagon was hit by a missile launched by elements from inside the U.
The French newspaper Liberation called the book "a tissue of wild and irresponsible allegations, entirely without foundation. The remains of passengers from Flight 77 were indeed found at the Pentagon crash site and their identities confirmed by DNA analysis. Further, Flight 77 passengers made phone calls reporting that their airplane had been hijacked. For example, passenger Renee May called her mother to tell her that the plane had been hijacked and that the passengers had been herded to the back of the plane.
Another passenger named Barbara Olson called her husband U. Solicitor General Theodore Olson and said that the flight had been hijacked, and that the hijackers had knives and box cutters. On May 16, , the government released the Pentagon security camera videos to Judicial Watch.
Out of the four planes hijacked on that day, Flight 93 was the only one not to reach its target. David Ray Griffin and Alex Jones have asserted that large parts of the plane, including the main body of the engine, landed miles away from the main wreckage site, too far away for an ordinary plane crash.
Jones says that planes usually leave a small debris field when they crash, and that this is not compatible with reports of wreckage found farther away from the main crash site. One person claimed that the main body of the engine was found miles away from the main wreckage site with damage comparable to that which a heat-seeking missile would do to an airliner. CNN reported that investigators found debris from the crash at least eight miles away from the crash site, including in New Baltimore.
The same article quotes FBI agent Bill Crowley that, "Lighter, smaller debris probably shot into the air on the heat of a fireball that witnesses said shot several hundred feet into the air after the jetliner crashed. The road between the two locations takes a roundabout route of 6. Often cited is a preliminary news report that Flight 93 landed at a Cleveland airport;  it was later learned that Delta Flight was the plane confused with Flight 93, and the report was retracted as inaccurate.
The editor of the article has since written a rebuttal to the claims. When the FBI released photographs four days after the cited reports on September 27, the mistaken identities were quickly resolved. According to Bradley, "all of this is attributable to the chaos that prevailed during the first few days following the attack. They should simply have been stopped at the border.
That was sixteen of the nineteen. Obviously, if even half of those people had been stopped, there never would have been a plot. Immigration, so both men were able to legally enter the U. There are also claims that other foreign intelligence agencies, such as the Israeli Mossad , had foreknowledge of the attacks, and that Saudi Arabia may have played a role in financing the attacks. General Hamid Gul , a former head of ISI, believes the attacks were an "inside job" originating in the United States, perpetrated by Israel or neo-conservatives.
Variants of the theory contend that the attack was organized by Ariel Sharon , Mossad , or the government of Israel. The U. It asserted that many of the theories were modern manifestation of the 19th century Protocols of the Elders of Zion , which purported to map out a Jewish conspiracy for world domination.
A number of prominent Saudi charities and banks as well as a leading member of the al-Saud royal family were accused of being "agents and alter egos" for the Saudi state that "knowingly" provided funding to al-Qaeda and encouraged anti Western sentiment. Congress Joint Inquiry   that were withheld from publication until July 15,
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