However, these findings rely on late-dating Indian texts, in which verses and mantras are often kept in more archaic forms. The "Split" manuscript is evidently a copy of an earlier text, confirming that the text may date before the 1st century CE. Statue belongs to 18 CAD, Tibet. The texts may have other Sanskrit titles as well, or different variations which may be more descriptive. The lengths specified by the titles are given below.

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Emptiness is Form", and declares the other skandhas to be equally empty—that is, dependently originated. This is interpreted according to the two truths doctrine as saying that teachings, while accurate descriptions of conventional truth, are mere statements about reality—they are not reality itself—and that they are therefore not applicable to the ultimate truth that is by definition beyond mental understanding.

The five large red characters are Chinese for Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva also known as Guanyin Pusa which is the beginning of the sutra.

The rest of the sutra is in black characters. The Heart Sutra is "the single most commonly recited, copied and studied scripture in East Asian Buddhism. The short version as translated by Xuanzang is the most popular version of adherents practicing East Asian schools of Buddhism. Some Japanese versions have an additional 2 characters. The short version has also been translated into Tibetan but it is not part of the current Tibetan Buddhist Canon Kangyur. The long version differs from the short version by including both an introductory and concluding section; features that most Buddhist sutras have.

The introduction introduces the sutra to the listener with the traditional Buddhist opening phrase "Thus have I heard". It then describes the venue in which the Buddha or sometimes bodhisattvas, etc. The concluding section ends the sutra with thanks and praises to the Buddha. Both versions are chanted on a daily basis by adherents of practically all schools of East Asian Buddhism and by some adherents of Tibetan and Newar Buddhism.

It is dated to c. Titles in use today[ edit ] In the western world, this sutra is known as the Heart Sutra a translation derived from its most common name in East Asian countries. But it is also sometimes called the Heart of Wisdom Sutra. They are as follows: e. The specific sequence of concepts listed in lines 12—20 " Lines 14—15 list the twelve ayatanas or abodes. Emptiness is form", and declares the other skandhas to be equally empty of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings such as the Four Noble Truths and explains that in emptiness none of these notions apply.

Thus the bodhisattva, as the archetypal Mahayana Buddhist, relies on the perfection of wisdom, defined in the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra to be the wisdom that perceives reality directly without conceptual attachment thereby achieving nirvana. All Buddhas of the three ages past, present and future rely on the Perfection of Wisdom to reach unexcelled complete Enlightenment.

The Perfection of Wisdom is the all powerful Mantra, the great enlightening mantra, the unexcelled mantra, the unequalled mantra, able to dispel all suffering. This is true and not false. Both have been translated into English. Of special note, although Woncheuk did his work in China, he was born in Silla , one of the kingdoms located at the time in Korea.

The chief Tang Dynasty commentaries have all now been translated into English.



The name denotes the female personification of the literature or of wisdom, sometimes called the Mother of All Buddhas. In the Prajnaparamita texts, prajna wisdom , an aspect of the original Eightfold Path , has become the supreme paramita perfection and the primary avenue to nirvana. The content of this wisdom is the realization of the illusory nature of all phenomena—not only of this world, as in earlier Buddhism, but of transcendental realms as well. The main creative period of Prajnaparamita thought extended from perhaps bce to ce. The first Chinese translation appeared in ce. The radically anti-ontological stance had been intended to free the spirit in its quest for experiential enlightenment.



Zen Buddhism Expert B. The several sutras of the Prajnaparamita Sutras vary from very long to very short and are often named according to the number of lines it takes to write them. So, one is the Perfection of Wisdom in 25, Lines. Another is the Perfection of Wisdom in 20, Lines, and then 8, lines, and so on. The longest is the Satasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra, composed of , lines.


The Prajnaparamita Sutras


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