LEEDY AND ORMROD 2001 PDF

Leedy and Ormrod further require a case study to have a defined time frame. The case study can be either a single case or a case bounded by time and place Creswell, Leedy and Ormrod provide several examples from different disciplines such as a medical research studying a rare illness event or political science research on a presidential campaign activity. Creswell suggests the structure of a case study should be the problem, the context, the issues, and the lessons learned. The data collection for a case study is extensive and draws from multiple sources such as direct or participant observations, interviews, archival records or documents, physical artifacts, and audiovisual materials.

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Leedy and Ormrod further require a case study to have a defined time frame. The case study can be either a single case or a case bounded by time and place Creswell, Leedy and Ormrod provide several examples from different disciplines such as a medical research studying a rare illness event or political science research on a presidential campaign activity. Creswell suggests the structure of a case study should be the problem, the context, the issues, and the lessons learned.

The data collection for a case study is extensive and draws from multiple sources such as direct or participant observations, interviews, archival records or documents, physical artifacts, and audiovisual materials. The researcher must spend time on-site interacting with the people studied. The report would include lessons learned or patterns found that connect with theories.

Ethnography Study The ethnography differs from a case study. The focus is on everyday behaviors to identify norms, beliefs, social structures, and other factors. As a result, findings may be limited to generalization in other topics or theories. In the ethnography methodology, the researcher must become immersed in the daily lives of the participants in order to observe their behavior then interpret the culture or social group and systems Creswell, The initial step in the ethnography process is to gain access to a site.

Second, the researcher must establish rapport with the participants and build trust. The data is collected from participant observations and from interviewing several key informants. If the interviews are lengthy, the researcher gathers documentation by using audiotapes or videotapes media. Leedy and Ormrod further clarifies that grounded theory research begins with data that develops into a theory. Grounded theory research is the process of collecting data, analyzing the data, and repeating the process, which is the format called constant comparative method.

The data can be obtained from several sources such as interviewing participants or witnesses, reviewing historical videotapes or records, observations while on-site.

The difficulty of this study is that the researcher usually has some connection, experience, or stake in the situation so bracketing setting aside all prejudgments is required.

The method for a phenomenological study is similar to that of grounded theory because interviews are conducted. Creswell suggests the procedural format is writing the research questions that explore the meaning of the experience, conducting the interviews, analyzing the data to find the clusters of meanings, and ending with a report that furthers the readers understanding of the essential structure of the experience.

Content analysis review forms of human communication including books, newspapers, and films as well as other forms in order to identify patterns, themes, or biases. The method is designed to identify specific characteristics from the content in the human communications. The researcher is exploring verbal, visual, behavioral patterns, themes, or biases.

The collection of data is a two-step process. First, the researcher must analyze the materials and put them in a frequency table as each characteristic or quality is mentioned. Second, the researcher must conduct a statistical analysis so that the results are reported in a quantitative format. The research report has five sections: the description of the materials studied, the characteristics and qualities studied, a description of the methodology, the statistical analysis showing the frequency table, and.

Creswell, J. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Leedy, P. Practical research: Planning and design 7th ed. Related Posts.

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McDevitt" is a psychologist with specializations in child development and educational psychology. She received a Ph. Since she has served the University of Northern Colorado in a variety of capacities--in teaching courses in child and adolescent psychology, human development, educational psychology, program evaluation, and research methods; in advisement of graduate students; in administration and university governance; and in research and grant writing. She has gained extensive practical experience with children, including raising two children with her husband and working in several capacities with children--as an early childhood teacher of toddlers and preschool children, an early childhood special education teacher, a scout leader, and a volunteer in school and community settings. When she has the chance, Teresa enjoys traveling internationally with her family, and spending time with her children and husband. She received her Ph.

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