The fur is colored brown or gray on the top; the bottom side is brighter. In a few species, the faces have four light-colored stripes. The patagium , the skin between the legs, is very small, and they lack a tail — a general characteristic of the fruit bats. The ears are acuminated and like many other leaf-nosed bats the nose bears a small, sharp leaf which is used for echolocation. Geographical distribution and habitat[ edit ] Neotropical fruit bats are found in an area that reaches from the north of Mexico and the Bahamas , to northern Argentina , the Caribbean islands included.
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Artibeus fraterculus Anthony, Name combination. Artibeus jamaicensis fraterculus: Cabrera, Artibeus Artibeus fraterculus: Marques-Aguiar, Context andContent. Order Chiroptera, suborder Yangochiroptera, family Phyllostomidae, subfamily Stenodermatinae, tribe Stenodermatini.
Artibeus fraterculus is the most common species of Artibeus throughout its geographical range; no subspecies are recognized Larsen et al. Artibeus fraterculus was considered a subspecies of A. Subsequent reviews by Honacki et al.
The generic name Artibeus is compounded from the Greek words: arti, straight, exactly fitted; and bao, to walk Palmer Facial lines in A. It also varies from the flat-faced fruit-eating bat A. Photograph by Jaime A. The horseshoe of nose leaf is free. The lower lip has about 15 rounded papillae; ears, nose leaf, forearm, tibia, metacarpals, and phalanges are pale brown, contrasting with dark blackish patagium. The tragus varies from gray to dark gray, with a pointed projection on inner margin near tip Fig.
The propatagium extends up to joint of the 1st phalanx of the thumb, patagium extends to near the base of the toes; feet and uropatagium are dark brown. Artibeus fraterculus, the palest of the South American Artibeus, presents a dichromatic appearance, occurring in both grayish brown and yellowish brown color phases.
The ventral pelage is pale, with the tips of individual hairs appearing silvery gray giving it a frosted appearance; base of both dorsal and ventral surfaces of forearm is hairy Anthony ; Marques-Aguiar , Albuja ; Marques-Aguiar Ranges mm or g, sexes combined for standard morphological features and mass of specimens from Ecuador and Peru were: total length, 64—76; length of ear, 15—21; length of nose leaf, 11—14; length of forearm, 52—59; length of hind foot, 12—16; body mass, 30—55 Anthony ; Hershkovitz ; Ortiz de la Puente ; Patten ; Albuja ; Tirira ; Salas The skull of A.
The preorbital process is poorly developed, postorbital process and interorbital ridges moderately developed, supraorbital ridges converge posteriorly, and the postorbital constriction is immediately behind postorbital process. The zygomatic arch is well ossified and subparallel and the paraoccipital process moderately developed; mesopterygoid fossa not constricted posteriorly on basicranium; anterior shape of mesopterygoid fossa U-shaped resulting in curved lateral borders; condylar process not prominent, projecting slightly from ramus; angular process narrow.
The nasals are planar; the teeth are large, with a broad occlusal area, and molars are well developed Ortiz de la Puente ; Patten ; Marques-Aguiar Greatest length of skull is Means, SDs, and ranges mm of cranial and dental measurements for 11 males and 16 females in parentheses collected from different localities in Ecuador Larsen et al.
It can also occur in some wet areas but it is less abundant in these areas Albuja and Mena ; Tirira ; McDonough et al. Loaiza reported an unusual record in humid montane scrub near 2, m in Loja Ecuador. No fossils are known. Geographic distribution of Artibeus fraterculus redrawn by Christian Loaiza from Marques-Aguiar M2 is moderately close to M1 and posterior edge of M1 is straight Patten The shape of M1 is almost triangular in occlusal view, and the hypocone of M1 is well developed, a character unique to A.
Maxillary toothrows converge anteriorly V-shaped ; crowns of I1 bilobed and not pointed; lingual cusp of P4 moderately to well developed; metacone and metaconule of M2 not separated as distinct lobes from rest of tooth Marques-Aguiar , The configuration of the cranium in A. Parameters in KHz of a search-phase frequency-modulated FM echolocation call taken from an individual in Rumi Wilco in Vilcabamba Loja, Ecuador on 9 August included: a starting frequency of Salas captured 2 males with testes descended and 1 female with nipples developed in the dry season September in mangroves and dry tropical forest; there are records of 4 pregnant females during the wet season April in semideciduous forest in Guayas Province, Ecuador W.
ECOLOGY Artibeus fraterculus inhabits natural roosts such as hollow trees, shrubs, caves, termite mounds, and artificial structures including bridges, churches, houses, gardens, and mines Albuja ; Tirira ; Carrera et al.
Individuals have been reported to occur in clusters ranging from 9 individuals in a termite nest Carrera et al. Artibeus fraterculus is a generalist frugivore, its diet is varied and includes Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae , Brosimum alicastrum, Ficus eximia, F. Novoa et al. Ectoparasites recorded from A. Endoparasites include Trypanosoma cruzi Order Kinetoplastida , with high infection levels Only the barn owl Tyto alba has been reported as a predator of A.
The false vampire bat Vampyrum spectrum given its known predation on fig-eating bats is a possible predator of A. Artibeus fraterculus occurs sympatrically with A. It has been captured in association with other species of bats including: A. The geographic distribution of A. The divergence of A. The uplifting of the Andes Mountains played an important role in the diversification of South American species of Artibeus and A.
Although A. A cladistic analysis by Owen , using 22 discrete-state external, cranial, mandibular, and dental characters resulted in an unresolved polytomy of A. Hoofer et al. This is consistent with phylogenetic analyses based on cytochrome-b mitochondrial gene Lim et al. These latter 2 taxa are distributed in xeric regions along the western and southern coasts of Middle America and thus A.
Synonymy completed 1 June Version of Record, first published online August 24, , with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. Nomenclatural statement—A life science identifier LSID number was obtained for this publication: urn:lsid:zoobank.
Larsen, J. Carrera, and R. Baker, for their comments and for all information provided. Carrera, R. Owen provided insights and friendly corrections to improve this manuscript. Collins for kindly helping with the English language.
Quiroga-Carmona helped us with the composition of the plate of skull. Burneo and J. Tinajero provided comments on echolocation call. Finally, M. Pinto and anonymous reviewers provided useful comments and corrections.
Great fruit-eating bat