For the first time Indian and Pakistani foreign policies have been. Download PDF.. The Great Rebellion, c. By the creation of Bangladesh, they..
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The war witnessed large-scale atrocities — genocide that claimed over 3 million lives, exodus of 10 million refugees, displacement of 30 million people and massive destruction of properties — in only nine months. Awami League President Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman had declared the independence of Bangladesh just before the operation was launched and got arrested.
The Pakistan Army engaged in a systematic genocide and atrocities of Bangali civilians, particularly nationalists, intellectuals, youth and religious minorities.
While the freedom fighters fought against the Pakistani occupation forces in the battle fields, the artistes of the radio station were engaged in another kind of war by keeping the hope of freedom alive among millions.
The London Times, the Sunday Times, the Guardian, the Sunday Observer, the Daily Mirror and the Daily Telegraph were helping in spreading the news of genocide and expedite cooperation among the international community to support Bangladesh. The event was the first-ever benefit concert of such a magnitude and featured a super-group of performers that included Harrison, fellow ex-Beatle Ringo Starr, Bob Dylan, Eric Clapton, Billy Preston, Leon Russel and the band Badfinger.
In addition, Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan, both of whom had ancestral roots in Bangladesh, performed an opening set of Indian classical music. According to Ravi Shankar, "In one day, the whole world knew the name of Bangladesh. On the other hand the, the United Nations had not taken any action to stop genocide in Bangladesh.
The people of Bangladesh fought for their liberation at the height of the cold war. Among the five permanent members of the Security Council, the US and China had directly supported Pakistan, Soviet Union stood for Bangladesh, while United Kingdom and France, despite showing sympathy for Bangladesh, could not openly challenge the US, and hence, abstained from voting. This deep division among the permanent members had completely paralysed the Security Council.
The neighbouring country, India, has played a significant role in favour of Bangladesh. When Pakistan declared war against India on November 22, , India directly involved in the war of Bangladesh. India entered the war on December 3, , after Pakistan launched pre-emptive air strikes in northern India. The role of Soviet Russia The response of Soviet Union to the crisis in East Pakistan was conditioned by the general Soviet policy with regard to Asia in the s. The relatively high priority given by the Soviet policy makers was the consequence of their perception of the contemporary world and Asia, and the proper Soviet role in both the world and Asian dimensions as a great power.
In the pluralist and open society of the US, influential and articulate segments stood solidly behind the cause of Bangladesh. As the crisis developed, the American response went through several discernible phases. The first phase of quiet non-involvement began on March 25 and lasted roughly until July 8, This marked the real beginnings of the Sino-US detente and led indirectly to the formalisation of Indo-Soviet alliance by a treaty in August.
During the third phase, lasting from September until December 3, when the Indo-Pakistan war over Bangladesh broke out, the US attempted to promote a constructive political dialogue between the Pakistani military government and the Bengali nationalist leaders in India, but in vain.
The fourth phase covered the period of the Indo-Pak war. Russia deployed two task groups; in total two cruisers, two destroyers, six submarines, and support vessels. Journalists brought home to the people of the world the stories of the trials and sacrifices of the heroic people of Bangladesh, and the tribulations they were facing under the insensitive and brutal military administration of the occupying armed forces of Pakistan.
On March 25, , the Pakistani military forcibly confined all foreign reporters to the Hotel Intercontinental currently the Rupashi Bangla in Dhaka, the night the military launched its genocide campaign. The reporters were able to see the tank and artillery attacks on civilians through the windows. Two days later, as Dhaka burned the reporters were expelled from the country — their notes and tapes were confiscated. He would return to Dhaka in June to report on the massacres in towns and villages.
He would again be expelled by the Pakistan military at the end of June. Two foreign reporters escaped the roundup on March One of them was Simon Dring of the Daily Telegraph. He evaded capture by hiding on the roof of the Hotel Intercontinental. Dring was able to extensively tour Dhaka the next day and witness first-hand the slaughter that was taking place.
Their mission was to tell the story of normalcy. The reporters went back to West Pakistan after their tour and dutifully filed stories declaring all was normal in East Pakistan. However, one of the reporters had a crisis of conscience. On May 18, , Mascarenhas flew to London and walked into the offices of the Sunday Times offering to write the true story of what he had witnessed in East Pakistan.
After getting agreement from the Sunday Times, he went back to Pakistan to retrieve his family. In June , under pressure and in need of economic assistance, Pakistan allowed a World Bank team to visit East Pakistan. The World Bank team reported back that East Pakistan lay in ruins. The report was leaked to the New York Times.
Following are the foreign newspaper reports from the beginning of the genocide in March to its end. They chronicle the bloody birth of Bangladesh. The author went through old newspapers and the accounts of other researchers for this article.
Date and event references are collected from Genocide Archive, Janmojuddho 71 and Kagooj. Related News.
Ancient era Edit The history of core South Asia begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens , as long as 75, years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about , years ago. Buddhism spread beyond south Asia, through northwest into Central Asia. Muhammad bin Tughlaq came to power in , launched a war of expansion and the Delhi Sultanate reached it largest geographical reach over the South Asian region during his year rule. The Bengal Sultanate remained in power through the early 16th century. It was reconquered by the armies of the Mughal Empire. The state religion of the Bengal Sultanate was Islam, and the region under its rule, a region that ultimately emerged as the modern nation of Bangladesh, saw a growth of a syncretic form of Islam. Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in
Politics and the press during 1971
India Pakistan Bangladesh and the major powers By G. W Choudhury