Nikobei Chromatische Phantasie He was forced from power inand a weak economic system and government instability led to chaos, culminating in strikes and an organized protest where the security forces fired upon Budapest students. His family was broken up; his brother was sent to the Mauthausen concentration camp, and his parents were sent to Auschwitz. Title Japanese title Length 1. Pages with timeline metadata Articles containing German-language text. Retrieved February 8, The composition is scored for The work is in two movements. Kadar defected to Russia.
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There are ten steps taken to compile the analysis: 1 Historical Background, which incorporates research into the background of the composer and the piece; 2 Open Listening, which is an unbiased listening of the piece with reflection; 3 Syntax, which incorporates partial transcription, tonal analysis, and structural analysis of the music; 4 Sound in Time, which is an analysis of the time, in seconds, over which the piece is displayed; 5 Representation, which incorporates a historical analysis of the particular influences on the composer at the time of the composition; 6 Virtual Feeling, which is a stream of consciousness reflection on the emotional aspects of the piece; 7 Onto-Historical World, which is a creative interpretation of the musical meaning; 8 Open Listenings, which is a reflection on multiple open listenings; 9 Performance Guide, which delineates suggestions for performance; 10 Meta-Critique, which is a final reflection on the analysis.
In his late teens Ligeti studied at the conservatory in Cluj, but his studies were interrupted by the onset of World War II. In he was sent into forced labor until the end of the war. His family was broken up; his brother was sent to the Mauthausen concentration camp, and his parents were sent to Auschwitz. In he began to teach harmony and counterpoint at the Liszt Academy in Budapest. He would teach there until fleeing to Vienna after the Hungarian revolution in In Vienna, Ligeti developed his compositional style by incorporating the new styles of Western musical composition that were hidden from him under the government of Hungary.
He became interested in the electronic music of Karlheinz Stockhausen and other avant-garde composers of the time. His style was one of dense sound and unique timbre created through creative use of colors, chromatisism, counterpoint, and instrumentation. Although early in his career he explored tone composition, most of his work contains elements of tonalism often shadowed by bi-tonal clusters and soundscapes. Structure and development is very important in his works, but the sound always comes first in his music.
Open Listening As a result of several open-listenings of Chromatische Phantasie, the following thoughts and ideas came about: The work is melodic and rhythmically complex, obviously atonal, and possibly tone based. There is an extremely strong pulse present at times, and at other times there is no pulse at all.
Each hand is starkly separate from the other, whether rhythmically, spatially, or both. There are many pauses and silences, and the piece is constantly shifting in tempo and speed of notes.
The piece starts with a melodic opening, which is interrupted by clusters. A conversational section follows where the high and the low pitches in clusters alternate as if speaking to one another, which is then interrupted by a rhythmic middle voice.
This erupts into a loud, strong low note, played on one key in a slow pounding rhythm. The high pitches and this low pitch eventually converge in the middle register in a huge roaring percussive climax. This is followed by a silence. Out of the silence, a quiet chromatic melody begins in the 5 th register, descending. The rhythmic idea tries to return, but it is unclear, and distant. The clusters return in the high register, and the piece ends.
Syntax The Chromatische Phantasie was written in , and is one of the last pieces Ligeti finished before fleeing Hungary after the revolution.
Many other pieces were started during this final year, but not completed, including a requiem, and an orchestral work. This is the only piece Ligeti ever composed that adhered strictly to the technique of dodecaphonic writing.
He never again wrote in this style adhering to all of the rules of tone writing. The piece is unpublished. The music begins with a strong strike on C1, which is followed by the aggregation of the row. The notes are presented all over the keyboard. The first minute and a half develops the row from sparse demonstrations to flurries and clusters at fortissimo volume, climaxing with a fff staccato strike on A0, the bottom note of the piano keyboard.
This A0 is stuck 7 times, once every measure. Three A0s are struck alone, followed by the entrance of the right hand with a descending pitter-patter of chromatic pitches, jumping back in forth between the 4 th and 5th octave on each note. The bass then moves to C 1, and the right hand plays the same pattern down in the 2nd and 3rd octave. The rhythm is speeding up with each jump.
The bass then jumps to what sounds like C 2 , B2 and C3 cluster chord. The right hand now plays a rhythmic 4 figure cluster against this cluster in the bass. Its tempo speeds up and the volume increases until silence. The left hand then takes up another steady pulse on C2 and B1 in eighth notes. The right hand contrasts after the first 10 strikes with four strikes of A3 and Bb4: Figure 3 The left hand continues the unaffected staccato chord as the right hand switches between the aggressive clusters and the skipping octave pattern.
The left hand rhythm ends as the right hand starts to play some triplet rhythms. The piece then collapses into heavily sustained, loud, quickly repeating clusters covering the entire range of the piano, creating a thick texture focused around Octave 3 and climaxing at full volume and speed before a sudden stop and silence for 8 seconds as the pedal has been lifted but the remnants of the sound fade away.
This is tender and melodic, but is interrupted by the repeated pattern again in the bass: Figure 4 5 The interruption loses steam, and the piece ends with clustered aggregates of the chromatic row, finishing in octave 6 clustered E, Eb, D: Figure 5 This chart shows the time and characteristics of the five sections.
Notice the symmetry of the rhythmic analysis bottom row : Figure 6 A B C D E Aggregate, A0 strike, pitter over Rhythmic left hand Soft melodic Ending aggregate, building in rising strikes in left cluster, exfoliation in aggregate, clusters, spread volume and hand right hand of interrupted by left over low B1 density clusters, leaping hand cluster, slowing octave lines down Sparse, building Slow rhythm Very rhythmic Slowing rhythm Sparse in speed and density 4.
Sound-in-Time This will reference the sections as delineated in the partial transcription at the end of this paper. The most relevant and revealing temporal unit to discuss would be the aggregate. The aggregate takes 24 seconds to be displayed the first time. This can be seen in figure one. It is immediately repeated in 7 seconds and then repeated again, this time taking almost 20 seconds. The next measures use repetition of notes to extend the aggregate for another 20 seconds although the pitches are happening in smaller note values.
There are two distinct tempos going on, and the bass speeds up slowly to match the right hand tempo, which also keeps speeding up.
The aggregate is slowly displayed at first, speeding up until the climax at the end of the section of a flurry of notes and clusters, leading to silence. The last chord does not make up the final aggregate. It is unfinished. There is an overall ebb and flow to the rhythm. It seems as if the left hand is constantly trying to slow things down as the right hand is trying to break free from the rhythm.
Representation The piece is called Chromatische Phantasie because of the chromatic nature of the tone row. One would imagine that the ability to fantasize would be crucial for someone who found himself repressed by the policies of the government and was preparing to escape the regime.
Russia installed a new leader in Hungary in , Imre Nagi. He was forced from power in , and a weak economic system and government instability led to chaos, culminating in strikes and an organized protest where the security forces fired upon Budapest students. Russia stepped in, making Nagy prime minister, and making Janos Kadar party first secretary. The Hungarian leader Nagy dissolved the state security system, abolished 7 the one party system, promised free elections, and negotiated to separate Hungary from the Warsaw Pact and Russian rule.
He called to the West for help as he withdrew from the Warsaw pact. Western support failed to come, and Russia came back in with force. Kadar defected to Russia. Nagy was captured and Kadar returned with the support of the Russian government to form a new government.
He executed or imprisoned thousands of citizens. Before Kadar returned however, over , refugees escaped to the West. As it continues, there is a rising tension, anger, and emotional conflict.
The appearance of ever tighter clusters give the feeling of trying to hold in the emotions, while the leaping released right hand motives are like the emotions that escape the bind. This leads to more and more frustration and release as the clusters try to control the motives, but eventually gives way to abandon. The right hand breaks out of that fear slowly, as the left hand gets more jagged and tense. It rises to try to control the right hand, which leads to a violent, dramatic pounding on the keys.
Again udder abandon is abruptly cut off. The silence is a breath, leading back to introspection. The attempt to start again is squashed by the return of the bass rhythmic motive, which interrupts any beauty or flow that occurs.
The end is a resignation. It is unclear, distant, and retracting. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. It is an incomplete aggregate, as if unable to finish the final gasp. Onto-Historical World The opening of the piece is tentative and introspective.
Time is halted as the chromatic aggregate is slowly unraveled. The frustration builds as the clusters of the left hand sternly call. The left hand takes the role of the communist party, the right of the soul trying to free itself Ligeti. A violent struggle ensues. Part two is the gavel of the law, strong but so far and separate from the real world of the people, which is represented by the aggregates in the right hand: high, fluttery, strong and uncatchable.
As the party tries to catch it, they meet and the discussion begins, but the party can only speak one thought. This erupts into chaos, and at the end of it is silence. The motive tries to tentatively start again, but the left hand lets it know that it is still around. The desire fades, and with one last gasp, gives up. Open Listenings The beginning is peering, unfolding, rising and falling, emotions trying to escape, anger darkening and taking over, the pitches descending then ascending.
It then leaps up and strikes three times again before the entrance, and then again leaps and strikes three times. The reemergence after the silence is clearly sad, but does not seem tentative. It has not given up its hope for melody, but is trying a different approach. The static left hand reappears, ready to control any sense of movement that the right hand tries.
The end is very muddy and unclear; also quiet. Performance Guide It is important to bring out the contrast between the different elements: melodic attempts, clusters, and rhythmic static moments. This is not a unified piece. It is on the contrary a piece of contrasts and tension created by the struggle between these elements.
LIGETI CHROMATISCHE PHANTASIE PDF
Mezitilar Night and Reggel Hungarian: By providing each horn or group of horns with different fund The motive tries to tentatively start again, but the left hand lets it know that it is still around. The work was composed from to , chromaatische after the composer began lecturing at the Budapest Academy of Music. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Member feedback about String Quartets Ligeti: Nagy was captured and Kadar returned with the support of the Russian government to form a new government. The lyrics are whimsical and often nonsensical, sometimes combining random Hungarian words or parts of words into a nonsense language. Composition and premiere The composition is dedicated to Serge Koussevitzky and his wife, Natalia Koussevitzky and is meant to be a gift for the Koussevitzky Music Foundation in the Library phantasoe Congress. Member feedback about Hamburg Concerto: The entire process is a series of sound impulses in rapid succession which create the impression of continuous sound.
Even though he started other projects, such as his Chromatische Variationen, Requiem not the one completed in and many other unfinished works, this was one of the last works he composed in Hungarian soil. The original manuscript is now located in Basel , as part of the Sacher Shiftung. Analysis[ edit ] The composition is scored for one solo piano and takes approximately 6 minutes to perform. It is based on the dodecaphonic compositional technique. The row is put in retrograde, inversion and retrograde inversion version throughout the whole piece.
His style was one of dense sound and unique timbre created through creative use of colors, chromatisism, counterpoint, and instrumentation. Andante con moto — attacca Intermezzo: History Originally, Ligeti had planned to compose a single movement work. The text is extracted from a Hungarian traditional poem, which is as follows: Ligeti combines this twelve-tone technique with tone clusterswhich he further developed in his following compositions. The metronomes are set up on the performance platform, and they are then all wound to their maximum extent and set to different speeds.