Programmable Electrometer Information The Keithley model Programmable Electrometer is a highly sensitive instrument designed to measure voltage, current, charge, and resistance. Two forms of resistance measurements are included in the standard configuration: a constant current method, and a constant voltage method that uses a built in Voltage Source for greater sensitivity. The measuring range of the model is between 1OpV and V for voltage measurements, O. The very high input impedance and extremely low input offset current allow accurate measurement in situations where many other instruments would have detrimental effects on the circuit being measured. Autoranging-Included for all functions and ranges. Baseline Suppression-One button suppression of a baseline reading is available from the front panel or over the IEEE bus.
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Once the instrument is unpacked, it must be connected appropriate power source as described below. A special power transformer may be installed for lOV and V ranges. The factory set range is marked on the rear panel of the instrurnent. Note that the line plug is designed to mate with the supplied 3-wire power cord.
Model and Triaxial Cables-The Model is made up of 3 feet of triaxial cable that is terminated with a trim plug on one end and 3 alligator clips on the other end. The Model is a similar cable 10 feet in length. Note that the Model is supplied with the Model The Model must be used to adapt the Model A to the Model triaxial input. The probe has an input resistance of 4.
The Model adapter must be used to connect the Model C to the Model Model Test Shield-The Model facilitates resistance, voltage, or current measurements with either 2- or 3-terminal guarded connections at voltages up to V. The Model provides excellent electrostatic shielding and high isolation resistance. Clips plug into banana jacks, allowing custom connections.
The Model has a BNC camector on one side and binding posts on the other. The Model adapter below is required to connect the Model to the Model Model Resistivity Chamber-The Model is a guarded test fixture for measuring voltage and surface resistivities. The unit assures good electrostatic shielding and high insulation resistance.
The complete system requires the use of an external high-voltage supply such as the Model as well as the Model Sheet samples 64 to mm 2Yz X 4 in diameter and up to 6. Excitation voltages up to 1OOOVmay be used. Model Triax Tee Adapter-The Model allows the simultaneous connection of two triaxial cables to the single triaxial input of the Model Model allows to accessories having CAUTION Do not attempt to operate the instrument on a supply voltage outside the indicated range, or instrument damage might occur.
Line Voltage Selection-The operating voltage of the instrument is internally selectable. Refer to Section 7 for the procedure to change or verify the line voltage setting, Line Frequency-The 50 or 60Hz power Model may be operated sources.
The primary address is set to 27 at the factory, but it may be programmed from the front panel as described in Section 3. Include the warranty status of the instrument.
Complete the service form at the back of this manual. The Model s is a similar rack mounting kit with a sliding mount configuration. Model and 3 Lug-to-2 Lug Adapters-The is a 3 lug male-to-2 lug female triaxial adapter, Model is a 2 lug male-to-3 lug female triaxial Model while the adapter. The Model is 0. Model Female Triaxial Connector-The Model is a chassis mount connector that mates with the Models and triaxial cables.
The l is 0. These cables may be used to connect the Model signal input to other equipment having similar triaxial connections. This section contains information necessary to use the instrument on a front-panel basis. Note that many of these functions can also be programmed over the IEEE bus, as described in Section 3. The switch will be at the inner most position the instrument is turned on. The instrument will power up in the volts function, in the autorange mode aqd with zero check enabled, as indicated by the associated front panel LEDs.
All other LEDs will be off when the instrument is first turned on. If message will remain on able to read the stored tion, the decimal points automatically tested as part of the a RAM memory error occurs, the rr the display.
If the instrument was not calibration constants and configurain the two exponent digits will flash. The following paragraphs contain a complete description of Model front panel operation. First a complete description of each front and rear panel function is presented.
Next the complete procedure for each of the measuring functions is presented, followed by a description of the built in voltage source. Finally, the analog output and guard functions are described along with a method to apply external feedback.
Connect the female end of the power cord to the AC receptacle on the rear panel of the instrument. Connect the other end of the cord to a grounded AC outlet.
A power up self test may be run and the software revision level may be displayed by pressing and holding the TRIG button when the unit is first turned on. During the test, all front panel LEDs and the display segments will turn on as in the example below: WARNING The Model is equipped with a 3-wire power cord that contains a separate ground wire and is designed to be used with grounded outlets.
When proper connections are made, instrument chassis is connected to power line ground. Failure to use a grounded outlet may result in personal injury or death because of electric shock. See Section 7 for details. The power must be turned off to remove the instrument from the diagnostic mode. Failure to observe this precaution may result in instrument damage. If necessary, the line voltage may be changed as decribed in Section 7.
NOTE If the instrument is still under warranty less than one year from the date of shipment , and problems develop, it should be returned to Keithley Instruments for repair. See paragraph 1. Model Front Panel 2. The front panel may be divided into two sections: controls and display indicators. The following paragraphs describe each of these items in detail. Note that the shift function is entered by pressing SHIFT before the second button rather than pressing the two simultaneously.
Many control buttons include an annunciator light to indicate the selected mode. Some buttons have a secondary function that is entered by pressing the SHIFT button before pressing the desired button.
The controls are color coded into functional groups for ease of operation. When VOLTS is pressed, the indicator next to the button turns on, showing that the instrument is set for that mode. Note that the Model will be in this mode when it is first turned on. The indicator next to the OHMS button will be illuminated when the instrument is in this mode.
Note that there are two ways to measure resistance with the Model Pressing OHMS alone will cause the instrument to measure resistance using the constant current method.
Depressing and releasing the switch once turns the power on. Depressing and releasing the switch a second time turns the power off. The correct positions for on or off are marked on the front panel immediately above the POWER switch. The indicator nexttothe COUL button will illuminate when the instrument is set for this mode. The AMPS indicator will turn on when the instrument is in this mode. Pressing the up arrow button will move the instrument up one range each time it is operated, while the down arrow button will move the instrument down range one increment eachtime it is pressed.
Note that pressing either of these buttons will cancel autorange if that mode was previously selected. The display mantissa will remain blank until the first reading is ready to be displayed. While in this mode, the Model will switch to the best range to measure the applied signal.
Note that the instrument will be in the autorange mode when it is first turned on. Autoranging is available for all functions and ranges. When zero check is enabled, the electrometer input circuit configuration changes see paragraph 2. No readings can be be taken with zero check enabled. Zero check should be enabled when making connections or when changing functions. If the range is changed while zero correct is enabled, the stored value will be scaled accordingly.
More information on using zero correct may be found in paragraph 2. For example, if you applied 1OV to the instrument and enabled suppress, that value would then be subtracted from subsequent readings. Once suppress is enabled, the value is scaled when the range is changed. The SGL indicator light will show that the instrument is in the one-shot mode. Each time the TRIG button is pressed, a single reading will be processed and displayed. The displayed reading will flash when the TRIG button is pressed.
Additional information on triggering may be found in paragraphs 2. Pressing DISPLAY once will switch the display from the present mode to the source mode, as indicated by the LEDs adjacent to the display more information on the display is located in paragraph 2.
The up arrow button increases the voltage value in 50mV increments, while the down arrow decreases the voltage source output in 5OmV increments. The instrument will stop on the value currently displayed when the button is released. Through these two buttons, data storage may be enabled or disabled, the storage rate may be selected, and readings may be recalled to the front panel display.
Paragraph 2. In addition, reading rates can be selected by holding the button in when first enabling data store. Pressing and holding this button causes the instrument to scroll through the pointer addresses as indicated on the display. Once the desired reading number is displayed, releasing the button causes the actual reading to be displayed. To extend the bail, rotate it out 90 from the bottom cover and latch it into place.
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