ISOBARIC ISOCHORIC ISOTHERMAL AND ADIABATIC PROCESSES PDF

Isothermal Process constant temperature In an isothermal process, system temperature is kept constant. Theoretically, the analyzed system is an ideal gas. T does not change, so U also does not change. For the system temperature to be constant then after heat is added to the system, the system expands and does work on the environment. After system does work on the environment, system volume changes to V2 system volume increases and system pressure changes to P2 system pressure decrease. The shape of the graph is curved because system pressure does not change regularly during the process.

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Isothermal Process constant temperature In an isothermal process, system temperature is kept constant. Theoretically, the analyzed system is an ideal gas. T does not change, so U also does not change.

For the system temperature to be constant then after heat is added to the system, the system expands and does work on the environment. After system does work on the environment, system volume changes to V2 system volume increases and system pressure changes to P2 system pressure decrease. The shape of the graph is curved because system pressure does not change regularly during the process. Adiabatic processes can occur in well-isolated closed systems.

For a well-insulated closed system, there is usually no heat that flows into the system or leaves the system. Adiabatic processes can also occur in closed systems that are not isolated. In this case, the process must be done very quickly so that heat does not flow to the system or leave the system.

Because W is negative, then U is positive energy in the system increases. Conversely, if the system expands quickly system does work , then W is positive.

Since W is positive, U is negative energy in the system is reduced. Conversely, if the energy in the system is reduced then system temperature decreases. Change in system pressure and volume in the adiabatic process is illustrated by the graph below: The adiabatic curve in this graph curves is steeper than the isothermal curve curves This steepness difference shows that for the same volume increase, the system pressure is reduced more in the adiabatic process than the isothermal process.

System pressure decreases more in the adiabatic process because when adiabatic expansion occurs, the system temperature also decreases. The temperature is proportional to the pressure, therefore if the system temperature drops, the system pressure also decreases. In contrast to the isothermal process, the system temperature is always constant.

Thus in the isothermal process, the temperature does not influence the pressure drop. One example of an adiabatically process occurs in an internal combustion engine, such as a diesel engine and a gasoline engine.

In diesel engines, air is inserted into the cylinder, and the air inside the cylinder is pressed quickly using a piston work is done on air. The adiabatic compression process system volume reduction is illustrated by curve Because of rapid adiabatic pressure, the temperature rises rapidly. At the same time, diesel is sprayed into the cylinder through the injector, and the mixture is instantly triggered.

In a gasoline engine, a mixture of air and gasoline is inserted into the cylinder and then pressed quickly using a piston. Because it is rapidly pushed adiabatically, the temperature rises quickly. At the same time, spark plugs fire so that the process of burning occurs. Isochoric Process constant volume In the Isochoric process, system volume is kept constant. Since the system volume is always constant, the system can not work on the environment. The environment also can not do work on the system.

The additional heat of the system causes the energy in the system to increase. The temperature is directly proportional to pressure. Therefore if system temperature increases, then system pressure increases p2. Due to the constant system volume, there is no work done no shaded area.

In the isochoric process, the system cannot do work on the environment. Likewise, the environment cannot do work on the system. This is because, in an isochoric process, system volume is always constant.

There are certain types of work that do not involve volume changes. So even though the volume of the system does not change, work can still be done on the system. The fan can rotate using energy by the battery.

In this case, fans, batteries, and air inside the container are considered as systems. When the fan rotates, the fan does work on the air present in the container. At the same time, the kinetic energy of the fan turns into energy in the air. Electrical energy in the battery, of course, reduced because it has changed shape into energy in the air. This example shows that in the isochoric process volume is always constant , work can still be done on the system work that does not involve volume changes.

Isobaric Process constant pressure In an isobaric process, system pressure is kept constant. Thus, first law thermodynamics formula has not changed. Because pressure is kept constant so after heat is added to the system, the system expands and does work on the environment. After working on environment, system volume changes to V Advertisement 2 system volume increases.

Question 1 : Curves in two diagrams below show gas expansion gas volume increase that occurs adiabatically and isothermally. In which process, work performed by gas is smaller? Work performed by gases in the adiabatic process is less than work by gas in the isothermal process. The shaded area in the adiabatic process is less than the shaded area of the isothermal process.

Question 2 : Thermodynamic processes are shown in the diagram below. In a-b process, heat Q Joules is added to the system. In the b-c process, heat Q Joule is added to the system. In the isochoric process, the addition of heat in the system only increases energy in the system. In a-b process, J heat is added to the system.

Due to constant volume, there is no work done by the system. In b-c process, heat Q Joules is added to system. In isobaric process, system can do work. Heat and work are involved in energy transfer between systems and environment, while internal energy changes are the result of energy transfer between system and environment. Therefore a change in energy does not depend on the process of energy transfer.

On the other hand, heat and work depend on the process. In the isochoric process constant system volume , energy transfer is only in the form of heat, while work is not. In the isobaric process constant pressure , energy transfer involves heat and work. Although not dependent on the process, energy changes in depending on initial state and state of the end system. If the initial and final states are the same, changes in energy are always the same, although the process is different.

Due to constant volume, there is no work done on the d-c process. First, we calculate work done on a-d process. Boiling of water occurs at constant pressure isobaric process. In other words, 21 x J is used to convert water into steam. When water has become steam, the remaining 1. Question 4 : 1 mole of gas in a cylinder expands rapidly adiabatically.

After expanding, the gas temperature decreases to K. Determine the work done by the gas â€¦ Solution Gas expansion occurs adiabatically. In the adiabatic process, no heat enters or exits the system.

BIRKHOFF MACLANE PDF

Adiabatic Process, Isochoric process & Isobaric Process

There is no difference between the two except the purpose of the refrigerator is to cool a very small space while the household heat pump is intended to warm a house. Both work by moving heat from a cold space to a warm space. The most common refrigeration cycle is the vapor compression cycle , which models systems using refrigerants that change phase. The absorption refrigeration cycle is an alternative that absorbs the refrigerant in a liquid solution rather than evaporating it. Gas refrigeration cycles include the reversed Brayton cycle and the Hampsonâ€”Linde cycle. Multiple compression and expansion cycles allow gas refrigeration systems to liquify gases. Modeling real systems[ edit ] Example of a real system modelled by an idealized process: PV and TS diagrams of a Brayton cycle mapped to actual processes of a gas turbine engine Thermodynamic cycles may be used to model real devices and systems, typically by making a series of assumptions.

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