Everyone who reads his work senses that his Hellenism is different, more sombre, more tortured by suffering than the radiant Utopia of antiquity envisaged during the Renaissance and Enlightenment. But his vision of Hellas has nothing in common either with the tedious, trivial, academic classicism of the nineteenth century or with the hysterical bestiality with which Nietzsche and the imperialist period envisaged Greece. With inimitable clarity Marx uncovered the social basis of the veneration for antiquity during the great French Revolution. And it is in the rigorous classical traditions of the Roman Republic that its gladiators found the ideals and the art forms, the illusions which they needed to conceal from themselves the limited civic content of their struggle and to keep their passion at the pitch of the great historical tragedy. In the Tubingen seminary three young students witnessed with enraptured rejoicing the great days of the revolutionary liberation of France. With youthful enthusiasm they planted a tree in honour of liberty, danced around it, and swore eternal loyalty to the ideal of the great struggle for liberation.
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His father, the manager of a church estate, died when he was two years old, and Friedrich and his sister, Heinrike, were brought up by their mother. In , Johann Gok died at the age of In preparation for entrance exams into a monastery, he received additional instruction in Greek , Hebrew , Latin and rhetoric , starting in At Denkendorf, he discovered the poetry of Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , and took tentative steps in composing his own verses.
He then lived in Homburg from to , meeting Susette in secret once a month and attempting to establish himself as a poet, but his life was plagued by financial worries and he had to accept a small allowance from his mother.
From to , he produced three versions—all unfinished—of a tragedy in the Greek manner, The Death of Empedocles , and composed odes in the vein of the Ancient Greeks Alcaeus and Asclepiades of Samos.
After a sojourn in Stuttgart at the end of , likely to work on his translations of Pindar , he found further employment as a tutor in Hauptwyl , Switzerland and then at the household of the Hamburg consul in Bordeaux , in His stay in the French city is celebrated in Andenken "Remembrance" , one of his greatest poems. In a few months, however, he returned home on foot via Paris where he saw authentic Greek sculptures, as opposed to Roman or modern copies, for the only time in his life.
Johann Heinrich Ferdinand von Autenrieth , the inventor of a mask for the prevention of screaming in the mentally ill. His residence in the building made up the second half of his life and is also referred to as the Turmzeit or "Tower period".
As time went on he became a minor tourist attraction and was visited by curious travelers and autograph-hunters. Often he would play the piano or spontaneously write short verses for such visitors, pure in versification but almost empty of affect—although a few of these such as the famous Die Linien des Lebens "The Lines of Life" , which he wrote out for his carer Zimmer on a piece of wood have a piercing beauty and have been set to music by many composers.
His mother and sister never visited him, and his stepbrother only once did so. Neither of them attended his funeral in , nor had the friends of his childhood, Hegel and Schelling, had anything to do with him for years; the Zimmer family were his only mourners. His inheritance, including the patrimony left to him by his father when he was two, had been kept from him by his mother and was untouched and continually accruing interest. He died a rich man, but did not know it. In the years after his return from Bordeaux, he completed some of his greatest poems but also, once they were finished, returned to them repeatedly, creating new and stranger versions sometimes in several layers on the same manuscript, which makes the editing of his works troublesome.
Some of these later versions and some later poems are fragmentary, but they have astonishing intensity. He seems sometimes also to have considered the fragments, even with unfinished lines and incomplete sentence-structure, to be poems in themselves.
This obsessive revising and his stand-alone fragments were once considered evidence of his mental disorder, but they were to prove very influential on later poets such as Paul Celan. Various individual poems were published but attracted little attention.
In he produced a periodical, Iduna. In , his translations of the dramas of Sophocles were published but were generally met with derision over their apparent artificiality and difficulty, which according to his critics were caused by transposing Greek idioms into German. However, 20th-century theorists of translation such as Walter Benjamin have vindicated them, showing their importance as a new—and greatly influential—model of poetic translation.
Der Rhein and Patmos , two of the longest and most densely charged of his hymns, appeared in a poetic calendar in Norbert von Hellingrath during World War I.
The fourth volume of the Berlin edition was published posthumously. The Berlin Edition was completed after the German Revolution of by Friedrich Seebass and Ludwig von Pigenot ; the remaining volumes appeared in Berlin between and Although his hymns can hardly be imitated, they have become a powerful influence on modern poetry in German and other languages, and are sometimes cited as the very crown of German lyric poetry. The Berlin Edition was to some extent superseded by the Stuttgart Edition Grosse Stuttgarter Ausgabe , which began to be published in and eventually saw completion in Meanwhile, a third complete edition, the Frankfurt Critical Edition Frankfurter Historisch-kritische Ausgabe , began publication in under the editorship of Dietrich Sattler.
He also had an influence on the poetry of Hermann Hesse and Paul Celan. His theoretical works, such as the essays "Das Werden im Vergehen" "Becoming in Dissolution" and "Urteil und Sein" "Judgement and Being" are insightful and important if somewhat tortuous and difficult to parse. Einklang freier Wesen
Kurzinhalt, Zusammenfassung "Hyperion" von Friedrich Hölderlin
Shaktitaxe She tends to replace philosophical incisiveness with a blustering, autobiographical style, but what her exposition lacks in rigour it makes up for in enthusiasm. If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. But on the other hand, to experience existence without liberty and self-determination is to be sunk deeply in a form of passivity verging on idiocy. Hyperion is an epistolatory novel of education in which a Greek philosopher of the late 18th century writes letters to a German friend telling his jyperion story.