The results include total head contours, velocity vectors, flow paths in green, and the location of the phreatic surface or zero pressure contour as a blue dashed line. We will start on the GeoStudio start page, where you can create a new project, open an existing project, or click on the appropriate links to view examples, tutorial videos, or engineering books for each GeoStudio product on our website. We will create a new project and choose to create the project using the default International System of units. If preferred, a blank document can be created with imperial units at this point Once our new project is created, the KeyIn Analyses window is opened, where we can add a title to our analyses tree, add an author or add comments for future users. We will add a steady state seepage analysis. Here, we can change the name of our analysis if desired, as well as change our analysis type to transient if we decided to not conduct a steady state analysis.
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The results include total head contours, velocity vectors, flow paths in green, and the location of the phreatic surface or zero pressure contour as a blue dashed line. We will start on the GeoStudio start page, where you can create a new project, open an existing project, or click on the appropriate links to view examples, tutorial videos, or engineering books for each GeoStudio product on our website.
We will create a new project and choose to create the project using the default International System of units. If preferred, a blank document can be created with imperial units at this point Once our new project is created, the KeyIn Analyses window is opened, where we can add a title to our analyses tree, add an author or add comments for future users. We will add a steady state seepage analysis. Here, we can change the name of our analysis if desired, as well as change our analysis type to transient if we decided to not conduct a steady state analysis.
We can also add a description about the analysis to help future users. Next, we will look at the convergence tab, which shows the convergence criteria for the analysis. Here, we can change the maximum number of iterations, the iteration comparison criteria, or the under-relaxation criteria.
It is recommended that you view the "Convergence and UR" tutorial video as a part of the Getting Started with GeoStudio series for more information on what the values of these criteria mean. The equation solver can also be changed in this tab if required. The time tab can be used to change the time steps and duration of the analysis if we were conducting a transient analysis.
As this is a steady state scenario, we will keep the default settings a zero seconds. Lastly, the advanced tab can be checked to see what extra options might be available for the analysis.
In this case the option to turn off surface water ponding is available, but we will leave this turned on for our analysis. Next, we will zoom into our drawing page and then take a look at the drawing scale of our analysis. We will go to set, units and scale, and here we can see the units that are being used in our current analysis. Here is where we can change our units if desired; for example, if I wanted to change my time units from seconds to days, I can do it by choosing days in the drop-down menu.
The problem extents boxes can be used to help modify the scale of the analysis. Changing these values can change the view of the analysis so that the entire domain remains on a single page. We will toggle off the "Calculate max extents" option and change our maximum x-coordinate to 60 m and a maximum y-coordinate to 15 m.
This automatically adjusts our scale values to accommodate these extents. We will toggle on the "Calculate max extents" again and fine tune our horizontal and vertical scale values to ensure a aspect ratio.
Now we are ready to create our domain. We will start by adding axes to our working area to help visualize the drawing extents of our domain.
This is completed by going to sketch, axes. Here, you can also change the names of the axis titles, as well as the X and Y axis extents. We will set the X axis extent to 55 m, and the Y axis extent to 12 m. You can also change the increment size of the axes labels by toggling off the auto increment size button and changing the increment size for each axis.
For this analysis, I will simply leave the auto increment size for the axis on. As you can see in the background of the page on my screen, there is a grid already activated. You can go to set, grid to turn this grid off or on, activate snap to grid, or change the grid spacing. You can use the zoom options along the bottom bar of your screen or under set, zoom to change the view of our analysis, either to the extents of your domain, or to the extents of the work area page, or simply zoom in or out.
It can be helpful to first sketch the problem prior to defining the geometry of the domain. For developing a polygon, we can use the sketch polyline button and draw the outer dimension of our embankment domain. The escape button or right mouse click can be used to deactivate the drawing polyline command.
Lines can also be drawn to indicate objects that are not included in the analysis. For example, the water level on one side of the embankment. The sketches are not included in the domain or the analysis and can be moved, modified, or deleted using the modify objects command. The approach to use when developing a numerical model is to determine the geometry, assign materials, assign boundary conditions, and then, finally, to review and fine tune the finite element mesh.
I will go to draw regions and draw my embankment region following the sketch of my embankment. Here, points will automatically be made wherever I use the left mouse button to click on the working area.
Once the region is created, I can either draw a second region or use the right mouse button or the escape button on my keyboard to stop the draw regions command. We will add in more geometry points along the lines where our boundary conditions will be applied. For example, at the height of the reservoir, we will add a point to the embankment region, so that the boundary condition is not applied above this point. Next, we will add the material to our analysis. I will go to KeyIn, Materials, to open the materials define window.
I will add a new material and give my material a name. Here, I can create a hydraulic conductivity and volumetric water content function for each of my materials. The saturated only option can be used if a steady state analysis is conducted on a domain that will remain saturated for the entire duration of the simulation.
In this case, the volumetric water content function is not required as I am not conducting a transient analysis. This means that there will be no change in storage within the domain. However, to use the internal estimation algorithms for the hydraulic conductivity function, a volumetric water content function is required.
So, I will set up a volumetric water content function by clicking on the ellipsis button. This button is used extensively in GeoStudio to indicate that additional features can be accessed. We will then add a volumetric water content function and give it a name. We will then choose the "VWC data point function" option and use the internal estimation algorithm by clicking on the estimate button. I will use a saturated water content of 0. This creates a typical silt volumetric water content curve, based on published literature, with a saturated water content of 0.
If desired, the "edit data points" option can be activated and data points within the curve can be deleted, moved using the left mouse button, or edited manually within the given point list. Points for the curve can also be added by pasting the points into the list area, provided the appropriate columns are copied from a program such as Microsoft excel.
The fit of the curve to the data points can also be edited using the curve fit and segments scroll bars which may be useful if the curve of the function does not pass through the desired data points. Since I am happy with my current curve, I will choose it from the drop down menu for the volumetric water content function. Next I will add the hydraulic conductivity function by clicking on the ellipsis button.
I will add a hydraulic conductivity function in a similar manner as I did with the volumetric water content function. I will use the internal estimation algorithms again by clicking on the estimate button. I will use the van Genuchten estimation method, choose my volumetric water content function from the drop-down menu, set the saturated hydraulic conductivity to 1E-6 metres per second and the residual water content to 0.
Once created, I can choose the "edit data points" option again to see how my curve fits my data points or move my data points with the left mouse button.
Since my curve passes through all data points nicely, I will now go back to the KeyIn materials window and choose my hydraulic conductivity function from the drop down menu. If I wanted to create an anisotropic material, I could change my Ky to Kx ratio. Here, a value of one indicates that my vertical hydraulic conductivity is equal to my horizontal hydraulic conductivity.
If my material actually required a vertical hydraulic conductivity of 1E-7 metres per second, I would change this ratio to 0. The rotation option allows you to change the hydraulic conductivity direction if it is not in the x to y direction.
Lastly, the activation pore-water pressure option allows you to choose a specific pore-water pressure for the entire material when it first becomes active in the simulation. Now we will add the material to our domain by choosing Draw materials.
We will simply choose the embankment material and assign it to the region. Boundary conditions can be created and assigned in a similar way as the materials. I will choose KeyIn, boundary conditions to open the define boundary conditions window. Here, two boundary conditions are automatically defined by default. These are the potential seepage face and zero pressure boundary conditions.
The potential seepage face boundary condition can be used where you want the solver to locate the position where a seepage face may develop. This means that the solver will create a zero pressure boundary condition where the pressure of the nodes becomes greater than zero kilopascals. The zero pressure boundary condition applies a constant pressure of zero kilopascals or constant pressure head of zero metres at the chosen nodes.
I will now add a new hydraulic boundary condition to represent the reservoir level in our analysis. We will set the new constant head boundary condition to 11 m. You can also change the color of your materials or boundary conditions by clicking on the color, set button while the item is active. Now we can open the Draw boundary conditions window.
We will also add a zero pressure boundary condition at the node representing the toe of the seepage face. Note that the boundary conditions can also be applied to regions depending on the requirements of the analysis. Our last step of developing our numerical analysis is to view our finite element mesh.
You can view the finite element mesh by choosing Draw mesh properties. Here we can see that the default mesh is set to have an approximate global element size of 1. We will create a finer discretization for the global mesh by changing this value to 1 m. Mesh constraints can also be applied to individual regions, lines, or points, but it is recommended to start with a simple mesh and then constrain the mesh only as necessary.
Now, we can solve our analysis by toggling on our analysis in the Solve Manager window and clicking on the start button. Once solved, the window will automatically change to the results view instead of the define view.
By default, the total head contours, velocity vectors and phreatic surface within the domain will show once the analysis has been solved. The results time window allows you to see what time steps have been solved and allows you to view the contours within the domain for different times steps. Since we are conducting a steady state analysis, there is only one time step available of zero seconds.
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Samutaur Attach files to help us identify a solution. Learn the basics of creating a model domain including drawing, splitting and merging regions and importing points. User Interface Tutorials A series of short movies to learn specific features of the GeoStudio user interface. Introduction to Docked Windows This video highlights the functionality of docked windows in GeoStudio and how windows can be repositioned using the guide diamond. Engineering Series A series of short movies to learn specific modeling techniques. Please enter your last name. Attach Additional Item s.
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