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We have seen a number of designers and artists make their careers out of designing type or custom lettering, and it has become common to list typography among our skills and disciplines.

Unfortunately, as with any popularity surge, there have come with it a lot of misunderstandings of some of the terms and concepts that we use. Before you throw your pens and brushes at me in protest, please let me explain! Even though lettering and typography share many of the same concepts, and a good eye and understanding of one will enable you in the other as well, they are completely different disciplines.

Typography is essentially the study of how letterforms interact on a surface, directly relating to how the type will be set when it eventually goes to press. It is related to typesetting and can include type design. In our current digitally-driven design world, this means working with fonts on a daily basis for most of us.

Typography is actually a subset of lettering, because it is the study of letters applied to typefaces. Many designers have also taken up letterpress printing as a hobby or side interest, which also utilizes aspects of typography or typesetting, depending on the project. Typeset book pages. Typography might be used in a logo, but so might custom lettering. This requires that we speak to them using the right terms, and it makes things easier to understand for both you and your client. In addition, as designers of any sort, we strive to maintain a high level of professionalism , and using terminology correctly is an important part of showing pride in our line of work and being confident that we can do it, not simply to get the job done, but to produce excellent work.

Often lettering is hand-drawn, with pens, graphite or brushes, although some people start their work directly in Adobe Illustrator. Engraving and similar arts are related to lettering. Just as typography is not lettering, lettering is not typography. Typography does indeed have similarities to lettering — it is still dealing with letters, but within the context of typefaces and their proper use. Again, accuracy in terms is an important element in any profession and design is no different.

Similarities And Differences The visual concepts that are behind typography and lettering are largely shared by both disciplines. However, often the terms used are different. Image: Marcin Wichary The space between letters is also an important concept, and lack of attention to it is responsible for much of the bad typography we see today.

In typesetting, a kern is part of a glyph that extends beyond the type block on which the character is molded, e. In lettering, however, avoid referring to this as kerning. Typography is used for endless applications, from titles to body text, some of which present a myriad of typographic considerations that those concerned with lettering will not have to think about.

Lettering is almost exclusively used as display text — imagine lettering a few paragraphs of text by hand! Calligraphy is a much more likely to be used in longer passages of text. Illuminated lavishly decorated lettering in the Lindisfarne Gospels, from the Gospel of Mark. This particular page showcases a lettered portion as opposed to a calligraphic passage, i. Some tenacious calligraphers, however, have undertaken monumental projects, such as the St.

The incredible proportions of this project are a testament to the beauty of traditional techniques, but also a reflection on how printing and typography have changed the world.

Historically Speaking The arts of both lettering and calligraphy have been around since time immemorial. Spoken languages quickly developed writing systems, which were then used to communicate through a more enduring medium than speech.

Lettering and calligraphy evolved alongside each other, along with other letter-related arts such as engraving. We can follow the progression, from the Rosetta Stone and ancient Roman inscriptions to the works of scribal art mentioned above and more. History has provided us with endless examples of lettering and calligraphy, by engraving, pen and brush. Traditional Chinese calligraphy. Image: Terry Madeley Although very few people could read, and writing was relegated to monasterial and royal scribes through the Middle Ages in Europe, we have some awe-inspiring work from that period.

Unfortunately, we often overlook the beautiful calligraphy and lettering that was being done in Asia and the Middle East, where an education in the arts was much more accessible. Both lettering and calligraphy have thrived in the eastern hemisphere and continue to be a source of inspiration today.

Calligraphic art in the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. Image: Simona Scolari When Johannes Gutenberg built his printing press around , the concept of typography, which had been developing slowly, was revolutionized. The moveable type system, metal alloy and casting methods gave the world a practical solution to printing.

This gave rise to the discipline of typography as we know it, with kerning, leading and the terms we still use today. Each letter had its own type block on which it sat, and typesetters would arrange the type character by character. Inside a Gutenberg Bible. Note the mixed use of blackletter typography and hand-lettered drop caps, mimicking the contemporary German calligraphic style.

Image: jmwk Typography was, and has continued to be, primarily the skill of setting type. It was a very time-consuming process, and people were constantly trying to find ways to streamline it and increase production rates.

Standardized methods for arranging the glyphs so their positions could be memorized and picked up by the typographer without having to look were developed. This gave us our terms for upper case and lower case characters, because an upper case, or drawer, typically contained the capitals and the lower type-case the minuscules, before the California Job Case, popular in the United States in the 19th century, combined both levels into one larger case.

A chart displaying the layout of the California Job Case method for arranging type. During this period of experimentation with printing, calligraphy still played a huge role in communication, and the educated would write in a hand that amazes us today as to the beauty and accuracy of their manuscripts.

Swashes, ascenders and descenders wove themselves into amazing patterns and borders, sometimes all but obscuring the text itself. Ornate sample of penmanship by Jan van de Velde, Amsterdam, Lettering and calligraphy followed cultural trends, leaving the Rococo era and becoming more sober during the early 19th century, only to flower into ornament once again through the Victorian era and the florid shapes of Art Nouveau.

The worlds of type and lettering constantly intermeshed. Many people, such as Oswald Cooper, achieved respect for their lettering and were hired by type foundries to design new typefaces. Title pages from German avant-garde publications "Dekorative Kunst" and "Pan", examples of lettering during the Art Nouveau movement. Lettering figured strongly through Art Deco and Modernism, for posters and ads, logotypes and book covers. The relatively recent art of film titles also provides us with a wide range of illustrative lettering styles from the 20th century.

Designers such as Herb Lubalin and Doyald Young, the metaphorical giants of lettering, have left a huge legacy from this time period. Lettering by Herb Lubalin displaying his studio address. Here I will step back in time to pick the thread of typography back up. Meanwhile, after many inventors had tried and failed to create a practical typesetting machine, Ottmar Mergenthaler succeeded in building the linotype machine in , which revolutionized the newspaper industry. This is not a sponsored statement, I simply enjoyed the documentary immensely and you may want to check it out!

A look at a linotype machine. Image: Marcin Wichary The linotype was just one of the machines used to expedite the typesetting and printing processes, and although some people still hand-set type, the industry as a whole was continuously changing to introduce faster and better techniques. Typography was explored in the various art movements, from Dada to Modernism and beyond, rethinking ways in which type could be used and given expression and meaning.

As typography, experimental and traditional, progressed, the techniques segued to phototypesetting and from thence to the digital age in which we find ourselves today. Typography as a discipline looks very different than it did 50 years ago. Instead of setting metal type and locking in forms, we use panels in Illustrator or InDesign to kern, add leading and align our type. Lettering has also moved into the digital format in which we enact most of our design work.

Many artists, however, stay true to analog media by hand-drawing lettering. The digital amalgamation has been largely responsible for the confusion of lettering and typography, since they are now often created using the same programs — the difference between the two is no longer the difference between a brush and a letterpress machine, or a drafting table and linotype matrices.

However, lettering and typography are still different concepts, and understanding them and their similarities and differences will help us become better designers.

Getting Started On Your Own Hand-Lettering For those looking to begin creating hand-lettering of their own, it can feel a bit daunting. The letterforms that we see so often prove very difficult to draw freehand. Thankfully, there are a lot of tips and tricks you can use to familiarize yourself with the process and learn how to create pleasing compositions. Tracing Get some tracing paper, and print out samples of well-known typefaces.

Trace them over a few times, letting your hand become used to the lines that type designers have carefully worked over and revised until they were perfect. This allows you to train your eye and hand using the work of masters. Reading Read voraciously! Knowledge is power, and understanding principles behind type design and letterforms help you develop your eye.

Photo Safari If you live near a town with a historic district or old buildings, make a point to spend a few hours on a weekend just walking around and finding samples of good typography and lettering.

You can find great examples in outdoor signage, whether lighted signs, painted or vinyl. Often there are huge letters painted on brick walls at old factories or restaurants. Then, use your photos as models to draw historic styles of lettering.

Resources Here are a few resources that I have found to be particularly helpful, concerning both lettering and typography.

Designing Type , Karen Cheng Cheng walks us through a semantic look at the rationale and aesthetics behind the typefaces we see and use regularly, replete with diagrams and illustrations.

Websites Typeverything A tumblog of lettering and typography, curated by some of the most respected current lettering artists. Calligraphica Another Tumblr website showcasing calligraphy of all styles and languages, again curated by amazing calligraphers and letterers, including some of those involved in Typeverything. I Love Typography In-depth blog posts about type history and lettering, interviews with type designers, updates on upcoming type-related publications — ILT provides a good read for serious letter lovers.

We Love Typography Compiled by typographers and designers of all sorts, another showcase of type and lettering with styles for everyone.

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Typefaces are divided up into classifications based on the era or characteristics of their design, which helps narrow down your options when choosing a font for your projects. Being able to identify a typeface style can help you make educated design decisions and choose the best font for your work depending on its use. The first fonts In the middles ages books were hand lettered in the Gothic style that had been developed by scribes, until the invention of the movable type press by Johannes Gutenberg. The first typeface carved by Gutenberg was based on the hand writing style of the time and was used to print the first books in Europe, including the Bible. Fonts such as Gutenberg and Fraktur are popular modern interpretations of the first print typefaces.

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