Reaction mechanism[ edit ] The reaction is catalyzed by nucleophiles such as a cyanide or an N-heterocyclic carbene usually thiazolium salts. The reaction mechanism was proposed in by A. Rearrangement of the intermediate results in polarity reversal of the carbonyl group, which then adds to the second carbonyl group in a second nucleophilic addition. Proton transfer and elimination of the cyanide ion affords benzoin as the product. This is a reversible reaction , which means that the distribution of products is determined by the relative thermodynamic stability of the products and starting material. In this reaction, one aldehyde donates a proton and one aldehyde accepts a proton.
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