Inspired by his experience in the Navy, he felt that men should be in service to humanity and spent most of his life devoted to that service. The philosophy of Thomas Malthus was popular at the time promoting the idea that as populations grew, the food supply would decrease leading to disaster. Dynamic, maximum, and ion were placed together to form the word Dymaxion. He named several inventions under this brand name such as a Dymaxion car, Dymaxion House, and other structures. The Dymaxion House could be put up in less than 24 hours. The roof was designed to utilize the dome effect which ventilated hot air out and forced cooler air downward creating natural air conditioning.

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Frequency and size are the same phenomenon. Prime means sizeless, timeless, subfrequency. Prime is prehierarchical.

Prime is prefrequency. Prime is generalized, a metaphysical conceptualization experience, not a special case An energy event is always special case. Whenever we have experienced energy, we have special case. Metaphysical includes all the experiences that are excluded by the definition of physical. Metaphysical is always generalized principle. The space-filling complementary tetrahedra and octahedra characterizing this matrix had prefrequency volumes 1 and 4 respectively see above. Whereas "height, width and depth" have been promulgated as three distinct dimensions within the Euclidean context, each with its own independence, Fuller considered the tetrahedron a minimal starting point for spatial cognition.

His use of "4D" was in many passages close to synonymous with the ordinary meaning of "3D," with the dimensions of physicality time, mass considered additional dimensions. Geometers and "schooled" people speak of length, breadth, and height as constituting a hierarchy of three independent dimensional states -- "one-dimensional," "two-dimensional," and "three-dimensional" -- which can be conjoined like building blocks.

All conceptual consideration is inherently four-dimensional. Thus the primitive is a priori four-dimensional, always based on the four planes of reference of the tetrahedron. There can never be less than four primitive dimensions.

Any one of the stars or point-to-able "points" is a system-ultratunable, tunable, or infratunable but inherently four-dimensional. His overarching concern was the co-occurring relationship between tensile and compressive tendencies within an eternally regenerative Universe. His Universe was "non-simultaneously conceptual": Because of the fundamental nonsimultaneity of universal structuring, a single, simultaneous, static model of Universe is inherently both nonexistent and conceptually impossible as well as unnecessary.

Ergo, Universe does not have a shape. Do not waste your time, as man has been doing for ages, trying to think of a unit shape "outside of which there must be something," or "within which, at center, there must be a smaller something.

He then related the "multiplicative 2" and "additive 2" in this formula to the convex versus concave aspects of shapes, and to their polar spinnability respectively. These same polyhedra, developed through sphere packing and related by tetrahedral mensuration, he then spun around their various poles to form great circle networks and corresponding triangular tiles on the surface of a sphere.

He exhaustively cataloged the central and surface angles of these spherical triangles and their related chord factors. Fuller was continually on the lookout for ways to connect the dots, often purely speculatively. As an example of "dot connecting" he sought to relate the basic disequilibrium LCD triangles of the spherical icosahedron to the plane net of his A module.

The JT formed a bridge between 3,4-fold rotationally symmetric shapes, and the 5-fold family, such as a rhombic triacontahedron, which later he analyzed in terms of the T module, another tetrahedral wedge with the same volume as his A and B modules. He modeled energy transfer between systems by means of the double-edged octahedron and its ability to turn into a spiral tetrahelix. Energy lost to one system always reappeared somewhere else in his Universe.

He modeled a threshold between associative and disassociative energy patterns with his T-to-E module transformation "E" for "Einstein". Fig His focus was reminiscent of later cellular automaton studies in that tessellating modules would affect their neighbors over successive time intervals. Fuller hoped the streamlining effects of a more degree-based approach within natural philosophy would help bridge the gap between C.

Arthur Loeb provided a prologue and an appendix to Synergetics discussing its overlap with crystallography, chemistry and virology. Errata[ edit ] A major error, caught by Fuller himself, involved a misapplication of his Synergetics Constant in Synergetics 1, which led to the mistaken belief he had discovered a radius 1 sphere of 5 tetravolumes.


Buckminster Fuller

International recognition began with the success of huge geodesic domes during the s. Fuller lectured at North Carolina State University in Raleigh in , where he met James Fitzgibbon, who would become a close friend and colleague. Fitzgibbon was director of Geodesics, Inc. Thomas C. Howard was lead designer, architect and engineer for both companies. Pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal. Beginning as an assistant professor, he gained full professorship in , in the School of Art and Design.


Table of Contents

About Fuller Synergetics "Synergetics is the system of holistic thinking which R. Buckminster Fuller introduced and began to formulate. Synergetics is multi-faceted: it involves geometric modeling, exploring inter-relationships in the facts of experience and the process of thinking. Synergetics endeavors to identify and understand the methods that Nature actually uses in coordinating Universe both physically and metaphysically. Synergetics provides a method and a philosophy for problem-solving and design and therefore has applications in all areas of human endeavor. Buckminster Fuller, Synergetics "Synergetics, in the broadest terms, is the study of spatial complexity, and as such is an inherently comprehensive discipline.

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