To this day, it is the only complete scholarly edition of the Codex Leningradensis and contains all significant text variants and proposals for correction in the critical apparatus. Unlike the scholarly editions of the Greek New Testament, the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia does not set out to reconstruct the original text of the Hebrew Bible. The oldest direct textual witnesses are the manuscripts that were discovered from onwards in the Judean Desert in the caves of Qumran on the Dead Sea. With the exception of one single transcript of the Book of Isiah retained in its entirety, the biblical texts from Qumran exclusively comprise fragments on which in most cases only a few connected words, and often no more than individual letters, can be identified. Textual witnesses in significant quantities that are important to Old Testament textual research are today only available from around the 3rd century BC: The first translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, the so-called Septuagint , dates back to this era. This is the oldest and most significant indirect witness of the wording of the Hebrew text as it existed at that time.
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He also released the book Massorah Gedolah iuxta codicem Leningradensem B 19a at the Pontifical Biblical Institute in , which is the very first Edition of the Masora Magna, what gives an idea of his unique expertise in relation to the Masora.
According to the introductory prolegomena of the book, the editors have "accordingly refrained from removing obvious scribal errors"  these have then been noted in the critical apparatus. Diacritics like the Silluq and Meteg which were missing in the Leningrad Codex also have not been added. The only exception to that is the Rafe diacritic which has been consistently omitted in the BHS due to "almost insuperable technical difficulties" with its implementation in the typeface.
One more difference to the Leningrad Codex is the book order, the Books of Chronicles have been moved to the end as it appears in common Hebrew bibles, even though it precedes Psalms in the codex. In the margins are Masoretic notes. These are based on the codex, but have been heavily edited to make them more consistent and easier to understand. Even so, whole books have been written to explain these notes themselves.
Some of the notes are marked sub loco "in this place" , meaning that there appears to be some problem, often that they contradict the text. The editors never published any explanation of what the problems were, or how they might be resolved. See Daniel S. Book order[ edit ] The order of the biblical books generally follows the codex, even for the Ketuvim , where that order differs from most common printed Hebrew bibles.
The only difference is with Chronicles.
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
Sitemap Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia Not all printed Bibles are identical; different Bible editions show differences in vocalization and more rarely in the consonantal text. This is the earliest extant, complete, vocalized biblical manuscript. An earlier manuscript, called the Aleppo Codex see link on the bottom of the home page , is more accurate than Leningrad B19A, but unfortunately, it is no longer complete. You can download sample pages of that here. The issue of the history of the biblical text is complex, and cannot be explained in detail here. Take out a copy of BHS, skim through it, and open up to p.
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: SESB 2.0 Version with Apparatus and WIVU Introduction