ARMY TM 10-227 PDF

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TM , February 18, , is changed as follows: The fitting thread used is cotton of maximum strength, a lock stitch being used because of greater strength. Welting and making. The shoe then goes to the rough rounder who shapes the outside edges of the bottom so that the Goodyear stitcher may stitch the sole leather bottom units to the outside edge of the welting, using a hot wax treated thread.

After award of contract for the manufacture of shoes is made by the procuring depot, it takes about 2 weeks for the manufacturer to get his supplies ready to begin upper leather cutting and sole leather preparation; then a senior inspector is selected to proceed to the factory.

He will be assisted by upper leather and sole leather in- spectors, and by examiners who will be sent to the factory in about 10 days. Shoes are generally bought f.

In the meantime the contractor forwards to the procuring depot samples of all materials such as he proposes to use in the manufac- ture of the shoes, and a pair of shoes showing what he proposes to deliver on the contract.

These are checked at regular intervals during the contract. Senior inspectors. The senior inspector will report his arrival and the arrival of other inspectors at the factory, and also the actual date the contractor presents sole leather for inspection, and the date the contractor begins cutting the upper leather. The senior inspector also makes daily reports as to work ac- complished by all inspectors in each department and a summation of these daily reports in weekly reports, showing progress on the contract.

It is also the duty of the senior inspector to see that each in- spector, including himself, is properly supplied with the necessary specifications and stamps and that these stamps are properly taken care of and kept in the personal possession of the inspectors at all times.

Upper leather. The first duty on arrival at a new contract is to inspect materials, both sole and upper leather. On large contracts requiring a production of more than 3, pairs daily, or in factories where the workmen are not skilled, the senior inspector should have at least one man assigned to assist him in taking care of these departments.

There are sev- eral important operations such as pulling, lasting, inseaming, inseam trimming, sole laying, rounding, and stitching which should be checked almost continually in order to insure the proper wear service of the shoes. Final inspection. The final inspection is usually done just after the shoes are cleaned and dressed and before they are packed, with the final inspectors and the senior inspector doing the best they can to see that full cases are packed without any empty cartons, and that the stencils accurately describe the contents of the shipping boxes.

Forty-foot cars should be spotted for shipping, if possible. By order of the Secretary of War : G. Types of shoes. Munson last 4 III. Types 5 Grain 6 Cutting— 7 IV. Hides 8 Soles 9 Heels 10 V. When these terms are used in de- scribing shoes, they refer almost entirely to the method of fastening the bottoms to the uppers of the shoes. In all other respects the different types may be very much alike. The inner edge of this welting fastens the upper and insole together by stitching with heavy thread, and the bottom of the shoe is fastened to the upper by stitch- ing with heavy thread through the outer edge of the welting.

The principal advantage of the welt shoe over the nailed shoe is that it has no nails coming through to the inside and it is more flexible. It is a little more costly to manufacture because of a greater number of operations and several items of extra material. All boots and shoes procured for Army use in peacetime are made by the welt process.

In commercial shoe manufacturing for civilian wear only the lowest priced shoes are made by this method, because the nailing makes the shoe stiffer on the bottom than the welt process and often causes roughness on the inside of the shoe when the clinch of the nails is too long. Military shoes are often made by this method, particularly in time of emergency, when it is necessary to insure better service with regard to the bottom staying on the shoe, and also when more than two layers of sole leather are used.

In the latter case it is almost essential to use the nailed shoe, because a too heavy bottom on the welt shoe is likely to burst the inseam which fastens the bottom to the upper. The best made military shoes of the metallic-fastened type are made with one row of loose nails, a Goodyear stitched outer sole, and a reinforcement row of standard screws.

This weak point is strengthened only by adding hob nails, heel plates, and toe plates. For the manufacture of these metallic- fastened or nailed shoes, it is necessary to have lasts with iron bottoms so that the nails will be clinched on the inside of the shoe. Munson last. This is the reason the Army has its own Munson last, so that whatever manufacturers have con- tracts for Army service or garrison shoes, the shoes will be of the same style, with the same shape toe in every pair, and the same exact grading between sizes and widths.

This grading is very important and amounts to y s inch between whole sizes and y 6 inch between half sizes. Shoe lasts must be made of selected, fine grade wood, such as, maple grown on hills or at least away from low land where moisture and water are likely to gather. Service shoes and leather boots for mounted enlisted men are made from side leather. Side leather, similar to that used in the Regular Army service shoe, is also used in practically the same type of shoe during an emergency.

Side leather is made from cow or steer hides taken from animals which are more than 2 or 3 years of age. Consequently, these hides are large and the leather, when finished, will measure as much as 50 square feet in area.

This large hide is cut straight up the middle for easy handling in the tannery and in the factory. The side leather taken from older animals is much coarser when the hair is removed from it than is the calf leather, the skins for which are taken from calves sometimes as young as 2 weeks. Consequently the grain in calf leather is much finer than in the cow or steer hides.

In side leather the grain is so rough and so uneven that it is generally necessary to buff it, that is, to take a very slight shaving about Yeo inch in thickness off the surface. Because of this buffing, and the coarse surface, it is necessary to finish side leather with a heavier pigment coverage. In using more pigment, the leather will not be so fine and pleasing to the eye as the calf leather; but it looks much better than it would if it were finished full grain without the buffing.

For these reasons, the side leather costs considerably less per square foot than does the calfskin. Practically all the area of the side can be utilized in cutting the service shoe, with care being taken to cut the vamps and toe caps from that part of the side nearest the backbone where it is firmer and not likely to stretch.

This is im- portant in an unlined shoe. The poorer parts of the side, such as the flanks and pockets where the leather is loose and pipey, are cut into the tongues of the shoes. The better parts of the flanks may be cut into the quarters. A very important difference between upper leather and sole leather is in the thickness of the leather. This difference is brought about by the difference in tannage.

The heaviest upper leathers often have to be split to decrease their thickness but sole leather is seldom split be- cause thickness means very much in its selling value.

The thickest sole leather is obtained from the oldest animals which have the thickest hides. The grain appearance of sole leather does not affect its selling value as it does in upper leather. The fine, closely packed fiber which is found nearest the backbone and the butt and along this area toward the shoulder, is of greater value for sole leather, and that part of the hide near the flank and in the pockets is of lesser value because the fiber is not packed so closely and, therefore, will not resist wear as well as finely packed fiber.

However, there is some use for all parts of the sole leather, side or back. Outer soles meeting Army specifications must be cut from that portion of the side containing the finest fiber, the middle soles may be cut from the best part of the shoulder where the fiber is not quite so fine, and the inner soles may be cut from the bellies, shoulders, and flanks where the fiber is looser.

These parts best serve the purpose for making insoles, which do not have to resist abrasive wear as do the outer soles. Sole leather counters and bottom fillers are in about the same fiber class as the insoles. The heel lifts may be second shoulder cuts or picked up in any part of the side or back where the fiber is good enough for heel lifting.

The manufacture of either type of shoe is done in 6 principal departments— cutting, fitting, lasting, sole leather, making, and fin- ishing. In the manufacture of the Army service shoe, which has no lining, there are approximately separate operations and the majority of these operations require skilled workmanship.

The A. Heel breast. Counter pocket. Edge extension. Figure 2. From there the shoes proceed to the finishing department and then to the shipping room.

These parts are cut by a machine with steel dies. Each operator cuts about pairs in an 8-hour day. The shoes are stacked in pair lots and go through the factory in this way. In some factories they are divided into pair lots and go through a little faster. The experienced cutter knows that he must lay his various dies on the right parts of the side and at the proper angles in order to get the necessary quality and stretch in each of the parts, and also to use up every inch of the leather, if possible, since this leather in normal times is valued at about 21 cents per square foot.

Such small scraps as remain when the cutter finishes his job are used in cutting the small eyelet stays. This is an unskilled operation, performed with a small hand die and a mallet. The fitting thread used is generally linen because of its greater strength, and the lock-stitch is used for the same reason. Practically all the opera- tions in fitting the shoe require skill, as in the vamping, counter- pocket stitching, and tip stitching, but the Army service shoe is not a difficult shoe to fit and stitch and, therefore, there is but little trouble originating in this room.

This, of course, is partly due to the fact that the contracts for the manufacture of Army shoes always specify the assignment to the factories of inspectors from the con- tracting depot. Sole leather and stock fitting. Sometimes the counters are bought by the contractor in a fitted condition. Other times the contractor cuts his own counters and skives and sands them smoothly along the edges.

The sole leather parts, particularly the outsole and insole, are im- portant enough, with regard to the wear-service of the shoe, and also the figured cost of the shoe, to necessitate their inspection, separately, before they are placed in or attached to the shoe. The difference in thickness of outer soles, amounting to only 1 iron y 48 inch , sometimes makes a difference of from 3 to 5 cents in the cost of a pair of outer soles, which is sufficient reason for their separate inspection!

Insoles of the proper width and size are then tacked to the corresponding last for each pair lot, or pair lot, of the shoes which have been fitted.

The counters have been mulled and dried to the proper temperature, and the shoe goes to the assembler who places a counter in the counterpocket and tacks the shoe upon the last by driving one tack at the heel. The shoes then go to the making room. This strip is drawn very closely up to the lip of the insole which insures the proper shape of the bottom of the shoe. The excess upper leather is then trimmed off, the welt flattened out, and the bottom filled with sole leather y 8 inch thick, thus presenting a flat surface for the laying of the middle sole and the outer sole.

These two soles are carefully laid on the flattened out welt and bottom filler so that there will be extra width on each side. The shoe then goes to the rough rounder who shapes the outside edges of the bottom so that the Good- year stitcher may stitch the sole leather bottom units to the outside edge of the welting.

Finishing, treeing, and packing. In or just before the shoe reaches the packing room, all Army shoes are carefully searched for insole tacks.

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ARMY TM 10-227 PDF

Kaganris It is indicative of esprit de corps and morale within a unit. Like most websites today, Olive-Drab. McNamara Boot, first pattern. New design boot fielded for all services instandard until The table is not exhaustive. Unless specified in this regulation, the commander issuing the clothing and equipment will establish wear policies for organizational clothing and equipment. Please note that our additions are not part of the Army Regulations — they are only provided to help you understand the policies better.

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Brajas Army TM Technical Manual Search Soldiers have an individual responsibility for ensuring their appearance reflects the highest level of professionalism. If you have additional information or amry correct any errors, please contact Olive-Drab. At that time, the U. General Information and Armmy Introduction Responsibilities. The Army is a profession.

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