An Adeline model consists of trainable weights. Initially random weights are assigned. The Adaline model compares the actual output with the target output and with the bias and the adjusts all the weights. Step1: perform steps when stopping condition is false. Step4: calculate the net input to the output unit.

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Next Page As the name suggests, supervised learning takes place under the supervision of a teacher. This learning process is dependent. During the training of ANN under supervised learning, the input vector is presented to the network, which will produce an output vector.

On the basis of this error signal, the weights would be adjusted until the actual output is matched with the desired output. Perceptron Developed by Frank Rosenblatt by using McCulloch and Pitts model, perceptron is the basic operational unit of artificial neural networks. It employs supervised learning rule and is able to classify the data into two classes. Operational characteristics of the perceptron: It consists of a single neuron with an arbitrary number of inputs along with adjustable weights, but the output of the neuron is 1 or 0 depending upon the threshold.

It also consists of a bias whose weight is always 1. Following figure gives a schematic representation of the perceptron. The most basic activation function is a Heaviside step function that has two possible outputs.

This function returns 1, if the input is positive, and 0 for any negative input. Training Algorithm Perceptron network can be trained for single output unit as well as multiple output units. Training Algorithm for Multiple Output Units The following diagram is the architecture of perceptron for multiple output classes. It was developed by Widrow and Hoff in The weights and the bias are adjustable. After comparison on the basis of training algorithm, the weights and bias will be updated.

It will have a single output unit. The weights and the bias between the input and Adaline layers, as in we see in the Adaline architecture, are adjustable. The Adaline and Madaline layers have fixed weights and bias of 1. Training can be done with the help of Delta rule. The Adaline layer can be considered as the hidden layer as it is between the input layer and the output layer, i. Training Algorithm By now we know that only the weights and bias between the input and the Adaline layer are to be adjusted, and the weights and bias between the Adaline and the Madaline layer are fixed.

As its name suggests, back propagating will take place in this network. The error which is calculated at the output layer, by comparing the target output and the actual output, will be propagated back towards the input layer. Architecture As shown in the diagram, the architecture of BPN has three interconnected layers having weights on them.

The hidden layer as well as the output layer also has bias, whose weight is always 1, on them. As is clear from the diagram, the working of BPN is in two phases. One phase sends the signal from the input layer to the output layer, and the other phase back propagates the error from the output layer to the input layer. The training of BPN will have the following three phases. Generalized Delta Learning Rule Delta rule works only for the output layer. On the other hand, generalized delta rule, also called as back-propagation rule, is a way of creating the desired values of the hidden layer.

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## Supervised Learning

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