ABU RAIHAN AL-BIRUNI PDF

He studied mathematics and astronomy under Abu Nasr Mansur. He also travelled to South Asia or Central Asia modern day Afghanistan with Mahmud of Ghazni whose son and successor Masud was, however, his major patron , and accompanied him on his campaigns in India in , learning Indian languages , and studying the religion and philosophy of its people. Biruni wrote his books in Arabic and Persian , and spoke Khwarezmian as his first language, though he knew no less than four other languages: Greek , Sanskrit , Syriac , and possibly Berber. Ahmad has given scholars a significant start to discovering more exact locations and experiences Al-Biruni may have had. Recovered personal records of Al-Biruni have been beneficial in creating an increasingly clearer image of what his life must have been like.

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Biruni was a versatile scholar and scientist who had equal facility in physics, metaphysics, mathematics, geography and history. Born in the city of Kheva near "Ural" then was a part of Iran in A. At an early age, the fame of his scholarship went around and when Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi conquered his homeland, he took Biruni along with him in his journeys to India several times and thus he had the opportunity to travel all over India during a period of 20 years.

He learnt Hindu philosophy, mathematics, geography and religion from thre Pandits to whom he taught Greek and Arabic science and philosophy. He died in A. He recorded observations of his travels through India in his well-known book Kitab al-Hind which gives a graphic account of the historical and social conditions of the sub-continent.

At the end of this book he makes a mention of having translated two Sanskrit books into Arabic, one called Sakaya, which deals with the creation of things and their types, and the second, Patanjal dealing with what happens after the spirit leaves the body. He observed that the Indus valley must be considered as an ancient sea basin filled up with alluvials.

The book discusses several theorems of astronomy, trigonometry, solar, lunar, and planetary motions and relative topics. In another well-known book al-Athar al-Baqia, he has attempted a connected account of ancient history of nations and the related geographical knowledge.

In this book, he has discussed the rotation of the earth and has given correct values of latitudes and longitudes of various places. He has also made considerable contribution to several aspects of physical and economic geography in this book. His other scientific contributions include the accurate determination of the densities of 18 different stones.

He also wrote the Kitab-al-Saidana, which is an extensive materia medica that combines the then existing Arabic knowledge on the subject with the Indian medicine. His book the Kitab-al-Jamahir deals with the properties of various precious stones. He was also an astrologer and is reputed to have astonished people by the accuracy of his predictions.

He gave a clear account of Hindu numerals, elaborating the principle of position. He developed a method for trisection of angle and other problems which cannot be solved with a ruler and a compass alone.

Biruni discussed, centuries before the rest of the world, the question whether the earth rotates around its axis or not. He was the first to undertake experiments related to astronomical phenomena. His scientific method, taken together with that of other Muslim scien- tists, such as Ibn al-Haitham, laid down the early foundation of modern science. He ascertained that as compared with the speed of sound the speed of light is immense. He explained the working of natural springs and artesian wells by the hydrostatic principle of communicating vessels.

His investigations included description of various monstrosities, including that known as "Siamese" twins. He observed that flowers have 3,4,5,6, or 18 petals, but never 7 or 9. He wrote a number of books and treatises. He has been considered as one of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times. His critical spirit, love of truth, and scientific approach were combined with a sense of toleration. His enthusiasm for knowledge may be judged from his claim that the phrase Allah is Omniscient does not justify ignorance.

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Wissenschaftsgeschichte: Al-Biruni - Ein Gelehrter, den das Abendland ├╝bersah

Gbazna [? The town of his birth now bears his name. About his ancestry and childhood nothing is known. Four years later he had made plans to carry out a series of such determinations and had prepared a ring fifteen cubits in diameter, together with supplementary equipment. At this time, civil war broke out. By he had carved out a realm extending a thousand miles north and south, and twice as far east and west.

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Abu Raihan Al-Biruni (973-1048)

Biruni was a versatile scholar and scientist who had equal facility in physics, metaphysics, mathematics, geography and history. Born in the city of Kheva near "Ural" then was a part of Iran in A. At an early age, the fame of his scholarship went around and when Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi conquered his homeland, he took Biruni along with him in his journeys to India several times and thus he had the opportunity to travel all over India during a period of 20 years. He learnt Hindu philosophy, mathematics, geography and religion from thre Pandits to whom he taught Greek and Arabic science and philosophy.

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Abu Rayhan al-Biruni

There he corresponded with Avicenna [24] and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars. He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Their court at Gorganj also in Khwarezm was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. In , Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghazni, the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty.

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