357 PHOTOCOUPLER PDF

These information are very good indeed. I guess, it should work mostly the same as a normal triac. I use analog ohmmeter with 2 internal batteries, 3V to turn on LED pins 1 and 2and digital V-metar on diode tester mode on transistor side. Learn how your comment data is processed. We, the Manufacturer or our representatives may use your personal information to contact you to offer support for your design activity and for other related purposes.

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Claims: We claim: 1. In a photocoupler wherein a semiconductor photo-responsive element and a semiconductor light emitting element are opposed in a hole of an insulating substrate having two groups of electric interconnections in predetermined patterns, the photocoupler characterized in that a P-N junction of said semiconductor light emitting element is arranged perpendicularly to a light receiving face of said semiconductor photo-responsive element, and that at least one of the elements is spliced with the corresponding group of electric interconnections by a brazing material at, at least, three points which lie on an identical plane but do not lie on one straight line.

A photocoupler according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor light emitting element has electrodes on principal surfaces on both sides thereof, both the electrodes have at least three end parts which lie on an identical plane but do not lie on one straight line, and said semiconductor light emitting element is spliced with the electric interconnections at the end parts by said brazing material.

A photocoupler according to claim 2, wherein both said electrodes are made of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ag and Cu. A photocoupler according to claim 2, wherein both said electrodes are made of Si. A photocoupler according to claim 1, wherein said brazing material is Pb - Sn solder. A photocoupler according to claim 2, wherein a film to which said brazing material is difficult to adhere is provided on said electrodes in an area other than those end parts of both said electrodes which said brazing material secures.

A photocoupler according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor light emitting element has Si electrodes on principal surfaces on both sides thereof, an SiO2 film is provided on surfaces of said electrodes on a side to be secured by said brazing material, metal layers are held in ohmic contact with said electrodes through openings provided in said SiO2 film, and said brazing material secures said metal layers.

A photocoupler according to claim 1, wherein a part of said P-N junction of said semiconductor light emitting element is perpendicular to said light receiving face of said semiconductor photo responsive element. A photocoupler comprising: first and second insulating substrates which are stacked on each other, said first insulating substrate having a hole, above which a semiconductor photo-responsive element is arranged; and a semiconductor light emitting element arranged in a recess defined by said hole of said first insulating substrate and said second insulating substrate, said semiconductor light emitting element having a P-N junction which is perpendicular to a light receiving face of said semiconductor photo-responsive element; wherein said semiconductor photo-responsive element and said semiconductor light emitting element are spliced with electric interconnections on said first and second insulating substrates by a brazing material, and at least one the elements being spliced with said electric interconnections by said brazing material at, at least, three points which lie on an identical plane but do not lie on one straight line.

A photocoupler, comprising: an insulating substrate which has a hole and which has two groups of electric interconnections in predetermined patterns on both principal surfaces thereof; and a semiconductor photo-responsive element and a semiconductor light emitting element which are opposed to each other through said hole and which are spliced with the respective groups of the electric interconnections by a brazing material, a P-N junction of said semiconductor light emitting element being perpendicular to a light receiving face of said semiconductor photo-responsive element, wherein at least one of the elements is spliced with the electric interconnections by said brazing material at, at least, three points which lie on an identical plane but do not lie on one straight line.

Photocouplers are optical coupling devices which include a semiconductor light emitting element and a semiconductor photo responsive element. They are presently often used for the isolation of solid state relays and transmission lines. Also, a photocoupler array consisting of a plurality of photocouplers mounted on the same substrate or a combined circuit consisting of a photocoupler and an integrated circuit are very advantageous for logic circuits and audio circuits.

Usually, the size of the semiconductor light emitting element is approximately 0. As illustrated in FIG. The first method disposes a P-N junction in the semiconductor light emitting element in parallel with the light receiving face of the semiconductor photo responsive element as shown in FIG.

The photocoupler of such construction is called the principal surface emission type. According to the second method, as shown in FIG. The photocoupler of such an arrangement is termed the side surface emission type.

In the semiconductor light emitting element, the light emission takes place in the vicinity of the P-N junction. Part of the emitted light is absorbed within the crystal of the semiconductor light emitting element, while the remaining part is radiated to the exterior.

Accordingly, the brilliance of the radiated light is the highest in the direction of the side surface to which the P-N junction is exposed, and it is comparatively low in the direction of the principal surface under the influence of the internal absorption. In this connection, the brilliance of the light in the direction of the principal surface is about half of that of the light in the direction of the side surface. In the principal surface emission type photocoupler, the light is radiated from the whole principal surface of the semiconductor light emitting element.

Therefore, in case where the light receiving region of the semiconductor photo-responsive element has substantially the same area as that of the principal surface of the semiconductor light emitting element, a major portion of the radiated light reaches the light receiving region and a comparatively high optical coupling efficiency is exhibited. However, when the size of each light receiving region is made small in order to raise the degree of integration of the semiconductor photo responsive elements, a mere fraction of the radiated light reaches the light receiving region, and the remaining light falls on another region of the semiconductor photo-responsive element.

As a result, the optical coupling efficiency becomes low. Moreover, the light falling on areas other than the light receiving region becomes stray light and gives rise to malfunctions of the semiconductor photo-responsive element. It has therefore been impossible to make the degree of integration high in a photocoupler array or in a combined device consisting of a photocoupler and an integrated circuit. It is therefore possible to enhance the degree of integration. Since, however, both the light receiving region and the light emitting region are small, the optical coupling efficiency is not raised satisfactorily unless both the regions are exactly aligned.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a photocoupler having high reliability. A further object of the present invention is to provide a photocoupler having a structure suitable for mass production. With these and other objects in view, the present invention provides a semiconductor photo-responsive element and a semiconductor light emitting element arranged on an insulating substrate in a manner to oppose to each other a P-N junction of the latter element is perpendicular to a light receiving face of the former element.

At least one of the elements is connected with electric wiring on the insulating substrate by the use of a brazing material at three or more points which lie on an identical plane of the insulating substrate but do not lie on one straight line.

Electric interconnections of predetermined patterns, 13, 14, 15, and 16 are provided on the outer surfaces of the insulating substrates by a known technique such as selective evaporation. A semiconductor photo-responsive element 18 having a light receiving region 17 is mounted on the insulating substrate Electrodes 19 and 20 of the semiconductor photo-responsive element 18 are electrically and mechanically spliced or connected with one group of electric interconnections 15 and 16 through a brazing material such as solder indicated at 21 and On the electric interconnections 15 and 16, there are provided glass dams 23 and 24 which serve to regulate the bonding positions of the brazing portions 21 and 22 and to prevent the brazing portions 21 and 22 from flowing out towards other areas.

The insulating substrate 12 has a hole 12a, and a semiconductor light emitting element 26 is received within a recess 25 which is defined by both the insulating substrates 11 and Electrodes 27 and 28 are provided on the principal surfaces of the semiconductor light emitting element 26 on both sides thereof.

The electrodes 27 and 28 are electrically and mechanically spliced with the other group of electric interconnections 13 and 14 on the insulating substrate 11 by the use of a brazing material such as solder in two places for each portions are indicated.

Numerals 32 and 33 designate glass dams which achieve the same function as that of the glass dams 23 and The semiconductor light emitting element 26 has a P-N junction J the exposed surface of which is perpendicular to the light receiving region 17 of the semiconductor photo responsive element 18, so that both the elements 18 and 26 form a side surface emission type photocoupler.

The electrodes 27 and 28 are inverted U-shaped, and the end parts of the electric interconnections 13 and 14 are divided in conformity with the end profiles of the electrodes 27 and 28 or predetermined patterns. In this embodiment, the semiconductor light emitting element 26 is fixed to the insulating substrate 11 at the four corner positions of a tetragon, i. Accordingly, a highly precise parallelism is attained between the light emitting face of the semiconductor light emitting element 26 and the light receiving face of the semiconductor photo responsive element Both the elements 18 and 26 can be fixed to predetermined positions on the insulating substrates 11 and 12 owing to the self-alignment effect of the brazing portions 21, 22 and Besides, since the photocoupler is of the side surface emission type, light of high brilliance can be caused to fall exactly on the light receiving region, and the enhancement of the photo-coupling efficiency can be achieved.

Moreover, since the illumination by the light can be confined to the light receiving face of the semiconductor photo responsive element 18, the light receiving region 17 in the semiconductor photo responsive element 18 can be made small in size, the degree of integration can be enhanced, and the liklihood of a malfunction due to stray light is minimized.

This results in a high reliability for the photocoupler. When solder is used as the brazing material 21, 22 and and the elements are bonded by face down bonding, the mass producibility of the photocoupler is high.

The reliability thereof is also high as disconnection and like troubles do not occur. Since both the elements 18 and 26 can be brought into proximity without being hindered by the electrodes, the photo-coupling efficiency is high. As the number of the fixing points becomes larger, the parallelism between both the elements 18 and 26 becomes higher. As the surface area of the brazing material becomes larger, the self-alignment effect of the brazing material develops more owing to the surface tension.

It is therefore desirable that the number of the fixations by the brazing material is increased within a range not spoiling the job efficiency. In order to achieve the beneficial results described above, at least one of the elements 18 and 26 needs to be fixed at, at least, three points which lie on an identical plane and which do not lie on one straight line. In this embodiment, the position of the lower end face of the semiconductor light emitting element 26 is higher than the position of the lower end faces of the electrodes 27 and Thus, in the step of melting and securing the brazing material at 29 and 30, the brazing portions 29 and 30 do not spread to the lower end part of the semiconductor light emitting element 26, and it is not feared that the brazing material will short-circuit the P-N junction J thereby damaging electrical characteristics of the semiconductor light emitting element In FIG.

As the electrodes 27 and 28 of the semiconductor light emitting element 26 becomes thicker, the heat radiation of the element 26 is better and the life of the element 26 is longer.

From the standpoint of the heat radiation, Ag, Cu, Au etc. In particular, Ag and Cu are inexpensive, and they have the advantage that relatively inexpensive and highly reliable Pb - Sn solder can be employed as the brazing material.

In the case of employing Cu for the electrodes 27 and 28, stopper layers which are made of Ni or the like adapted to check the passage of Cu may be interposed between the Cu electrodes and the semiconductor light emitting element This prevents lowering of the luminous efficiency due to the diffusion of Cu into the semiconductor light emitting element When the electrodes are too thin, the area of their contact with the brazing portions becomes small, and a predetermined bonding strength of the semiconductor light emitting element cannot be ensured.

When they are too thick, the operation of dividing each of their lower ends into a plurality of parts becomes difficult, and the divided end profile lowers in precision. As an expedient for providing the semiconductor light emitting element 26 with each of the electrodes 27 and 28, there is first contrived a method wherein a metal plate is bonded with a brazing material such as Au - Ge and Au - Si. Secondly, there is contrived a method wherein a metal layer of Au or the like is deposited on the semiconductor light emitting element and wherein a thick metal layer is formed thereon by the plating.

From the viewpoint of the mass producibility, it is desirable to form metal layers on a GaAs wafer and then cut the resultant structure into semiconductor light emitting element pellets. It is extremely difficult, however, to cut the thick metal layers and the GaAs wafer at the same time and at high accuracy. Therefore, metal plates worked into a predetermined pattern in advance may be bonded. As an alternative, after bonding metal plates, they may be worked into a predetermined pattern by removing their parts to be cut away with the photoetching technique.

In the case of relying on the plating, the selective plating may be adopted. In the case where the surface carrier concentration of the GaAs wafer is made high in advance, it is possible to directly plate the surfaces of the GaAs wafer with Au or Ag. The metals Ag and Cu can easily execute the selective plating by electroplating.

In both these figures, the same symbols as in FIGS. Referring to FIGS. An SiO2 insulating film 45 is provided on the lower surfaces of the semiconductor light emitting element 26 and both the Si electrodes 41 and 42 i. The SiO2 film 45 is provided with openings, through which metal films 46, 47 and 48 are held in ohmic contact with the Si electrodes 41 and The metal films are spliced with the electric interconnections 13 and 14 through the brazing material portions The SiO2 film 45 prevents the brazing material from flowing out laterally onto the Si electrodes in bonding and fixing the semiconductor light emitting element 26 to the insulating substrate In such electrode construction, by using solder as the brazing material and adopting face down bonding, the reproducibility of the manufacturing process is high.

The reproducibility of the bonding strength is also high. The metal layers may be thin, and their positions and shapes can be controlled very precisely. Therefore, the alignment precision with respect to the electric interconnections is higher in this embodiment than in the previous embodiments shown in FIGS.

As the brazing material , Pb - Sn solder is the most excellent because the price is low, the reliability is high, and the melting point is not very high e. When a material having a high melting point is used as the brazing material , group-V elements volatilize from the surfaces of the semiconductor light emitting element 26 due to heating at the bonding job, and the luminous efficiency of the semiconductor light emitting element 26 is lowered.

Referring to FIG. Light emitted from the semiconductor light emitting element 26 is efficiently led to the light receiving regions 17a and 17b of the semiconductor photo responsive element 18 by an optical guide 51 made of a transparent resin.

In the illustrated example, the light receiving regions 17a and 17b are caused to simultaneously function by the light emission of the semiconductor light emitting element Numerals 61 to 63 indicate electrodes of both the elements 26a and 26b which are made of silicon. The semiconductor photo responsive element 18 having light receiving regions 17a and 17b is electrically and mechanically spliced with the electric interconnections 15 and 16 on the insulating substrate 12 through the electrodes 19 and 20 as well as the brazing portions 21 and An insulating SiO2 film 64 adapted to transmit light is provided on the lower surface of the semiconductor photo-responsive element 18, and electric interconnections 65 to 67 are provided in a manner to be kept away from the light receiving regions 17a and 17b.

The stacked and bonded body consisting of the semiconductor light emitting elements 26a, 26b and the Si electrodes is electrically and mechanically spliced with the electric interconnections through electrodes on the electrodes as well as the brazing portions In this embodiment, the electrode 62 is commonly used, and by impressing a signal on the electrode 61 or 63, the light receiving regions 17a and 17b can be caused to function simultaneously or independently.

Since the semiconductor light emitting elements 26a and 26b are fixed directly on the semiconductor photo-responsive element 18, the alignment precision between both the sorts of elements is especially higher than in the embodiments described previously.

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